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Table 1

Effect of oral administration of GTP on the tumor development and 4T1 tumor cell metastasis in lungs of BALB/c mice

Treatment groupsAfter 15 d
After 30 d
Tumor wet weight (g)No. metastatic lung nodules/mouseDiameter of metastatic lung nodules (mm)Tumor wet weight (g)No. metastatic lung nodules/mouseDiameter of metastatic lung nodules (mm)
Normal (no treatment) — — — — — — 
GTP (0.5%) alone — — — — — — 
4T1 (GTP 0%) 3.1 ± 0.8 4.0 ± 1.0 1.1 ± 0.2 4.5 ± 0.3 37 ± 6 3.1 ± 0.5 
4T1 + GTP (0.2%) 2.6 ± 0.8 (16) 3.0 ± 0.5 (25)* 0.9 ± 0.2 (18) 3.4 ± 0.3 (24)* 30 ± 6 (19) 2.1 ± 0.5 (32)* 
4T1 + GTP (0.5%) 1.8 ± 0.7 (42) 2.0 ± 0.5 (50) 0.6 ± 0.2 (45) 2.1 ± 0.3 (53) 21 ± 5 (43) 1.8 ± 0.5 (42) 
Treatment groupsAfter 15 d
After 30 d
Tumor wet weight (g)No. metastatic lung nodules/mouseDiameter of metastatic lung nodules (mm)Tumor wet weight (g)No. metastatic lung nodules/mouseDiameter of metastatic lung nodules (mm)
Normal (no treatment) — — — — — — 
GTP (0.5%) alone — — — — — — 
4T1 (GTP 0%) 3.1 ± 0.8 4.0 ± 1.0 1.1 ± 0.2 4.5 ± 0.3 37 ± 6 3.1 ± 0.5 
4T1 + GTP (0.2%) 2.6 ± 0.8 (16) 3.0 ± 0.5 (25)* 0.9 ± 0.2 (18) 3.4 ± 0.3 (24)* 30 ± 6 (19) 2.1 ± 0.5 (32)* 
4T1 + GTP (0.5%) 1.8 ± 0.7 (42) 2.0 ± 0.5 (50) 0.6 ± 0.2 (45) 2.1 ± 0.3 (53) 21 ± 5 (43) 1.8 ± 0.5 (42) 

NOTE. One million mouse breast cancer 4T1 cells were inoculated on right flank of each mouse and considered as a high-risk group. Mice were sacrificed after 15 and 30 days of tumor cell inoculation and observations were recorded at the same time. Each treatment group has 10 mice.

The data in parentheses indicate % inhibition by GTP treatment.

*

Significant versus non-GTP-fed animals (P < 0.05).

Significant versus non-GTP-fed animals (P < 0.01).

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