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Table 1

Distribution of potential confounding factors (%) among control men without and with vasectomy, King County, Washington, 1993–1996

FactorControls without vasectomy (n = 438)Controls with vasectomy (n = 265)
Age at reference date (yrs)   
 40–49 8.4 7.9 
 50–54 18.3 21.9 
 55–59 35.6 40.8 
 60–64 37.7 29.4 
Race   
 Caucasian 96.4 99.2 
 African-American 3.6 0.8 
Family history of prostate cancer   
 None 85.2 83.4 
 First-degree relative 8.4 12.1 
 Second-degree relative 6.4 4.5 
Marital status   
 Married 77.6 87.5 
 Single 5.7 
 Other 16.7 12.5 
Annual income ($)   
 <30,000 15.7 8.3 
 30,000–49,999 25.6 21.9 
 50,000–74,999 23.3 33.2 
 75,000–99,999 16.7 17.4 
 ≥100,000 17.6 17.7 
 Unknown 1.1 1.5 
Education   
 High school or less 23.0 23.8 
 Some college 19.4 28.3 
 College graduate 28.8 24.9 
 Graduate/professional school 28.8 23.0 
Ever visited a urologist 33.1 38.5 
History of BPHa 10.3 15.1 
Current smokerb 16.0 15.5 
Regular consumer of alcoholic beveragesc 86.1 90.6 
Religious preference   
 Protestant/other 60.3 65.7 
 Catholic 17.6 12.5 
 Jewish 2.3 0.8 
 None 19.9 21.1 
Hospitalized within the past year   
 No 85.6 86.8 
 Yes 14.4 13.2 
No. of physical exams within past 5 years   
  0 12.6 10.9 
 1–2 36.5 37.7 
 3–4 19.2 20.8 
 ≥5 31.7 30.6 
No. of DREs within past 5 years   
  0 14.6 16.6 
 1–2 41.1 37.0 
 3–4 25.6 20.7 
 ≥5 23.7 25.7 
No. of PSAs within past 5 years   
  0 66.4 67.9 
 1–2 20.8 16.2 
 3–4 7.8 9.4 
 ≥5 5.0 6.4 
FactorControls without vasectomy (n = 438)Controls with vasectomy (n = 265)
Age at reference date (yrs)   
 40–49 8.4 7.9 
 50–54 18.3 21.9 
 55–59 35.6 40.8 
 60–64 37.7 29.4 
Race   
 Caucasian 96.4 99.2 
 African-American 3.6 0.8 
Family history of prostate cancer   
 None 85.2 83.4 
 First-degree relative 8.4 12.1 
 Second-degree relative 6.4 4.5 
Marital status   
 Married 77.6 87.5 
 Single 5.7 
 Other 16.7 12.5 
Annual income ($)   
 <30,000 15.7 8.3 
 30,000–49,999 25.6 21.9 
 50,000–74,999 23.3 33.2 
 75,000–99,999 16.7 17.4 
 ≥100,000 17.6 17.7 
 Unknown 1.1 1.5 
Education   
 High school or less 23.0 23.8 
 Some college 19.4 28.3 
 College graduate 28.8 24.9 
 Graduate/professional school 28.8 23.0 
Ever visited a urologist 33.1 38.5 
History of BPHa 10.3 15.1 
Current smokerb 16.0 15.5 
Regular consumer of alcoholic beveragesc 86.1 90.6 
Religious preference   
 Protestant/other 60.3 65.7 
 Catholic 17.6 12.5 
 Jewish 2.3 0.8 
 None 19.9 21.1 
Hospitalized within the past year   
 No 85.6 86.8 
 Yes 14.4 13.2 
No. of physical exams within past 5 years   
  0 12.6 10.9 
 1–2 36.5 37.7 
 3–4 19.2 20.8 
 ≥5 31.7 30.6 
No. of DREs within past 5 years   
  0 14.6 16.6 
 1–2 41.1 37.0 
 3–4 25.6 20.7 
 ≥5 23.7 25.7 
No. of PSAs within past 5 years   
  0 66.4 67.9 
 1–2 20.8 16.2 
 3–4 7.8 9.4 
 ≥5 5.0 6.4 
a

BPH diagnosed by a physician >2 years before reference date.

b

Current smoker is defined as smoking at reference date.

c

Regular consumer is defined as ≥ monthly drinking of alcoholic beverages for ≥6 months.

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