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Table 1.

Age-standardized characteristics of nested case-control study participants by prostate cancer and T. vaginalis plasma antibody status, Health Professionals Follow-up Study 1994

Prostate cancer case and matched control status
P*T. vaginalis antibody serostatus (controls only)
P
Cases (n = 691)Controls (n = 691)Seropositive (n = 65)Seronegative (n = 626)
Mean age at blood draw (y) 65.8 65.7 Matching variable 65.8 65.7 0.98 
Caucasian race (%) 94.6 94.2 0.56 92.4 94.4 0.52 
Family history of prostate cancer (%) 21.8 16.8 0.02 9.3 17.6 0.08 
Mean height in 1986 (in.) 70.1 70.1 0.76 70.2 70.1 0.86 
Smoked cigarettes in the past 10 y (%) 16.5 17.7 0.61 14.4 18.0 0.46 
Mean intakes of       
    Total energy (kcal/d) 2,012 2,035 0.47 1,936 2,045 0.18 
    Alcohol (g/d) 11.8 11.5 0.70 13.0 11.4 0.40 
    Tomato sauce (servings/d)§ 0.19 0.19 0.89 0.17 0.18 0.28 
    Red meat (servings/d)§ 1.0 1.0 0.70 0.9 1.0 0.06 
    Fish (servings/d)§ 0.31 0.33 0.04 0.36 0.33 0.40 
    Fructose in 1990 (g/d) 49.9 49.4 0.60 49.9 49.4 0.79 
    Calcium (mg/d) 950.1 951.5 0.95 899.1 956.9 0.32 
    α-Linolenic acid (g/d) 1.1 1.1 0.93 1.1 1.1 0.79 
Vitamin E supplementation (%) 37.5 34.4 0.28 32.0 34.7 0.66 
Any vigorous leisure-time physical activity (%) 58.0 57.4 0.87 61.3 57.0 0.51 
Vasectomy (%) 25.9 26.5 0.85 32.3 25.9 0.26 
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (%) 6.2 5.8 0.82 1.6 6.2 0.13 
Aspirin use since age 20 y (%)       
    Infrequent (0-19% of the time) 26.9 23.6  22.9 23.7  
    Moderate (20-79% of the time) 29.5 31.8 0.40 29.8 32.0 0.68 
    Regular (80-100% of the time) 39.1 39.1  41.2 38.9  
PSA test after blood draw (%)** 99.6 99.7 1.00 100.0 99.4 0.52 
Digital rectal examination after blood draw (%)** 98.1 96.8 0.16 97.1 96.8 0.90 
History of (%)††       
    Gonorrhea 2.6 2.6 1.00 1.4 2.7 0.54 
    Syphilis 0.14 0.00 1.00 0.0 0.0 – 
    Clinical prostatitis 22.0 18.0 0.07 21.8 17.6 0.39 
Mean monthly ejaculation frequency, ages 20 to 29 y†† 13.6 14.0 0.17 14.3 14.0 0.70 
Consumed alcohol, ages 18 to 22 y (%)‡‡ 69.6 68.2 0.61 75.4 67.4 0.18 
Smoked cigarettes before age 30 y (%)§§ 47.9 49.5 0.59 46.5 49.8 0.61 
Mean body mass index at age 21 y (kg/m2)§§ 22.8 22.9 0.24 23.2 22.9 0.48 
Any vigorous physical activity (%) in††       
    High school 84.8 85.0 1.00 86.5 84.8 0.72 
    College 76.6 76.8 0.95 80.4 76.5 0.47 
Prostate cancer case and matched control status
P*T. vaginalis antibody serostatus (controls only)
P
Cases (n = 691)Controls (n = 691)Seropositive (n = 65)Seronegative (n = 626)
Mean age at blood draw (y) 65.8 65.7 Matching variable 65.8 65.7 0.98 
Caucasian race (%) 94.6 94.2 0.56 92.4 94.4 0.52 
Family history of prostate cancer (%) 21.8 16.8 0.02 9.3 17.6 0.08 
Mean height in 1986 (in.) 70.1 70.1 0.76 70.2 70.1 0.86 
Smoked cigarettes in the past 10 y (%) 16.5 17.7 0.61 14.4 18.0 0.46 
Mean intakes of       
    Total energy (kcal/d) 2,012 2,035 0.47 1,936 2,045 0.18 
    Alcohol (g/d) 11.8 11.5 0.70 13.0 11.4 0.40 
    Tomato sauce (servings/d)§ 0.19 0.19 0.89 0.17 0.18 0.28 
    Red meat (servings/d)§ 1.0 1.0 0.70 0.9 1.0 0.06 
    Fish (servings/d)§ 0.31 0.33 0.04 0.36 0.33 0.40 
    Fructose in 1990 (g/d) 49.9 49.4 0.60 49.9 49.4 0.79 
    Calcium (mg/d) 950.1 951.5 0.95 899.1 956.9 0.32 
    α-Linolenic acid (g/d) 1.1 1.1 0.93 1.1 1.1 0.79 
Vitamin E supplementation (%) 37.5 34.4 0.28 32.0 34.7 0.66 
Any vigorous leisure-time physical activity (%) 58.0 57.4 0.87 61.3 57.0 0.51 
Vasectomy (%) 25.9 26.5 0.85 32.3 25.9 0.26 
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (%) 6.2 5.8 0.82 1.6 6.2 0.13 
Aspirin use since age 20 y (%)       
    Infrequent (0-19% of the time) 26.9 23.6  22.9 23.7  
    Moderate (20-79% of the time) 29.5 31.8 0.40 29.8 32.0 0.68 
    Regular (80-100% of the time) 39.1 39.1  41.2 38.9  
PSA test after blood draw (%)** 99.6 99.7 1.00 100.0 99.4 0.52 
Digital rectal examination after blood draw (%)** 98.1 96.8 0.16 97.1 96.8 0.90 
History of (%)††       
    Gonorrhea 2.6 2.6 1.00 1.4 2.7 0.54 
    Syphilis 0.14 0.00 1.00 0.0 0.0 – 
    Clinical prostatitis 22.0 18.0 0.07 21.8 17.6 0.39 
Mean monthly ejaculation frequency, ages 20 to 29 y†† 13.6 14.0 0.17 14.3 14.0 0.70 
Consumed alcohol, ages 18 to 22 y (%)‡‡ 69.6 68.2 0.61 75.4 67.4 0.18 
Smoked cigarettes before age 30 y (%)§§ 47.9 49.5 0.59 46.5 49.8 0.61 
Mean body mass index at age 21 y (kg/m2)§§ 22.8 22.9 0.24 23.2 22.9 0.48 
Any vigorous physical activity (%) in††       
    High school 84.8 85.0 1.00 86.5 84.8 0.72 
    College 76.6 76.8 0.95 80.4 76.5 0.47 

NOTE: Data are age-standardized by matching for comparisons between prostate cancer cases and controls, and by multivariable linear regression (including 2-year age indicator variables) for comparisons between T. vaginalis antibody seropositive and seronegative participants.

*

Assessed by paired t test for continuous variables, McNemar's test for dichotomous variables, and the likelihood ratio test for polychotomous variables.

Assessed by the Wald test.

Assessed in 1990 to 1996.

§

Cumulative mean intake between 1986 and 1994.

Adjusted for total energy intake.

Percentages do not sum to 100% due to missing values.

**

Assessed through 2000.

††

Assessed in 1992.

‡‡

Assessed in 1988.

§§

Assessed in 1986.

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