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Table 2.

Levels of total NNAL, total cotinine, and total nicotine in the urine of 144 infants exposed to ETS

% (n)Mean ± SDRange
All samples    
Total NNAL (pmol/mL) 100 (144) 0.083 ± 0.200 ND*-2.12 
Total cotinine (nmol/mL) 100 (144) 0.133 ± 0.190 ND-1.81 
Total nicotine (nmol/mL) 100 (144) 0.069 ± 0.102 ND-1.02 
    
Samples with detectable biomarkers
 
   
Total NNAL (pmol/mL) 46.5 (67) 0.179 ± 0.264 0.029-2.12 
Total cotinine (nmol/mL) 93.1 (134) 0.143 ± 0.194 0.006-1.81 
Total nicotine (nmol/mL) 97.9 (141) 0.070 ± 0.103 0.006-1.02 
% (n)Mean ± SDRange
All samples    
Total NNAL (pmol/mL) 100 (144) 0.083 ± 0.200 ND*-2.12 
Total cotinine (nmol/mL) 100 (144) 0.133 ± 0.190 ND-1.81 
Total nicotine (nmol/mL) 100 (144) 0.069 ± 0.102 ND-1.02 
    
Samples with detectable biomarkers
 
   
Total NNAL (pmol/mL) 46.5 (67) 0.179 ± 0.264 0.029-2.12 
Total cotinine (nmol/mL) 93.1 (134) 0.143 ± 0.194 0.006-1.81 
Total nicotine (nmol/mL) 97.9 (141) 0.070 ± 0.103 0.006-1.02 

Abbreviation: ND, not detected (below the limit of quantitation).

*

Detection limits were calculated for each sample and were as follows: total NNAL (0.09-0.36 pmol/mL), total cotinine (0.5-2 ng/mL), and total nicotine (0.5-2 ng/mL). A value of zero was used for samples which were below the limit of detection. To convert nmol cotinine to ng, multiply by 176; for nicotine, multiply by 162.

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