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Table 2.

Maternal occupational exposure and ras mutation among childhood ALL cases

Maternal Occupational ExposureExposure PeriodK-ras Mutation
N-ras Mutation
−Cases (n = 710)+Cases (n = 40)Adjusted OR (95% CI)+Cases (n = 89)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Solvents, degreasers, or cleaning agents Any time 57 1.8 (0.6-4.8) 1.2 (0.5-2.5) 
 Before pregnancy 42 2.0 (0.7-6.3) 1.2 (0.5-2.8) 
 During pregnancy 30 3.1 (1.0-9.7) 1.0 (0.4-3.1) 
 After pregnancy 35  1.2 (0.4-3.1) 
Plastic materials Any time 4.5 (0.9-24.0) 1.1 (0.1-9.3) 
 Before pregnancy 4.9 (0.9-26.5)  
 During pregnancy 6.9 (1.2-39.7)  
 After pregnancy 8.3 (1.4-48.8) 1.7 (0.2-14.8) 
Paints or thinners Any time 56 1.3 (0.4-3.9) 1.0 (0.4-2.2) 
 Before pregnancy 29 1.0 (0.2-4.6) 1.6 (0.6-4.1) 
 During pregnancy 33 1.0 (0.2-4.4) 1.5 (0.6-3.6) 
 After pregnancy 43 1.4 (0.4-4.9) 1.1 (0.4-2.7) 
Oil or coal products Any time 39 0.5 (0.1-4.0) 10 2.3 (1.1-4.8) 
 Before pregnancy 22  2.3 (0.9-5.9) 
 During pregnancy 17  1.9 (0.6-5.9) 
 After pregnancy 27 0.7 (0.1-5.7) 2.3 (1.0-5.5) 
Other hydrocarbons Any time 85 0.9 (0.3-2.6) 0.8 (0.3-1.6) 
 Before pregnancy 57 1.3 (0.4-3.8) 0.9 (0.4-2.1) 
 During pregnancy 45 0.8 (0.2-3.8) 1.1 (0.5-2.7) 
 After pregnancy 58 0.3 (0.1-2.6) 0.9 (0.4-2.1) 
Any hydrocarbons Any time 153 1.2 (0.5-2.6) 19 1.0 (0.6-1.7) 
 Before pregnancy 100 1.5 (0.7-3.5) 16 1.3 (0.7-2.4) 
 During pregnancy 86 1.6 (0.6-3.8) 12 1.1 (0.6-2.2) 
 After pregnancy 113 0.9 (0.3-2.4) 13 0.9 (0.5-1.7) 
Maternal Occupational ExposureExposure PeriodK-ras Mutation
N-ras Mutation
−Cases (n = 710)+Cases (n = 40)Adjusted OR (95% CI)+Cases (n = 89)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Solvents, degreasers, or cleaning agents Any time 57 1.8 (0.6-4.8) 1.2 (0.5-2.5) 
 Before pregnancy 42 2.0 (0.7-6.3) 1.2 (0.5-2.8) 
 During pregnancy 30 3.1 (1.0-9.7) 1.0 (0.4-3.1) 
 After pregnancy 35  1.2 (0.4-3.1) 
Plastic materials Any time 4.5 (0.9-24.0) 1.1 (0.1-9.3) 
 Before pregnancy 4.9 (0.9-26.5)  
 During pregnancy 6.9 (1.2-39.7)  
 After pregnancy 8.3 (1.4-48.8) 1.7 (0.2-14.8) 
Paints or thinners Any time 56 1.3 (0.4-3.9) 1.0 (0.4-2.2) 
 Before pregnancy 29 1.0 (0.2-4.6) 1.6 (0.6-4.1) 
 During pregnancy 33 1.0 (0.2-4.4) 1.5 (0.6-3.6) 
 After pregnancy 43 1.4 (0.4-4.9) 1.1 (0.4-2.7) 
Oil or coal products Any time 39 0.5 (0.1-4.0) 10 2.3 (1.1-4.8) 
 Before pregnancy 22  2.3 (0.9-5.9) 
 During pregnancy 17  1.9 (0.6-5.9) 
 After pregnancy 27 0.7 (0.1-5.7) 2.3 (1.0-5.5) 
Other hydrocarbons Any time 85 0.9 (0.3-2.6) 0.8 (0.3-1.6) 
 Before pregnancy 57 1.3 (0.4-3.8) 0.9 (0.4-2.1) 
 During pregnancy 45 0.8 (0.2-3.8) 1.1 (0.5-2.7) 
 After pregnancy 58 0.3 (0.1-2.6) 0.9 (0.4-2.1) 
Any hydrocarbons Any time 153 1.2 (0.5-2.6) 19 1.0 (0.6-1.7) 
 Before pregnancy 100 1.5 (0.7-3.5) 16 1.3 (0.7-2.4) 
 During pregnancy 86 1.6 (0.6-3.8) 12 1.1 (0.6-2.2) 
 After pregnancy 113 0.9 (0.3-2.4) 13 0.9 (0.5-1.7) 

NOTE: Adjusted for maternal race, education, age, family income, and child's age and sex.

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