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Table 2.

RRs and 95% CIs of prostate cancer by lycopene intake and serum lycopene

AuthorDiet lycopene (moderate intake)Diet lycopene (high intake)Serum lycopene (moderate value)Serum lycopene (high value)Cases/controls or cohort sizeVariables of adjustment
Case-control studies       
    Key et al. (5) 0.90 (0.63–1.29) 0.99 (0.68–1.45) – – – Age, energy intake, ethnicity 
    Meyer et al. (26) 1.28 (0.81–2.01) 1.73 (0.92–3.26) – – 215/593 Age, education, family history, energy intake 
    Jain et al. (3) 0.90 (0.74–1.10) 1.01 (0.76–1.35) – – 617/636 Age, total energy, vasectomy, smoking, marital status, study area, BMI, vitamin use, diet 
    Deneo-Pelligrini et al. (27) 1.13 (0.76–1.68) 1.2 (0.7–2.2) – – 175/233 Age, residence, education, family history, BMI, energy intake 
    Cohen et al. (4) 1.08 (0.83–1.39) 0.89 (0.60–1.31) – – 628/602 Age, race, fat, energy, family history, BMI, antigen tests, education 
    Norrish et al. (16) 0.81 (0.60– 1.11) 0.76 (0.50–1.17) – – 317/480 Age, height, NSAIDs, socioeconomic status 
    Lu et al. (19) 1.03 (0.44– 2.38) 0.69 (0.23–2.08) 0.45 (0.21–0.96) 0.17 (0.04–0.78) 65/132 Age, race, smoking, education, family history, alcohol, calories 
    Vogt et al. (10) – – 0.84 (0.57–1.23) 0.65 (0.36–1.15) 209/228 Age, race, study center, time of blood draw 
Cohort or nested case-control studies       
    Hsing et al. (18) – – 0.69 (0.39–1.23) 0.50 (0.20–1.29) 103/103 Age, race, smoking, education, time of last meal 
    Cerhan et al. (25) – 0.5 (0.3–0.9) – – 101/1575 Age, energy, nondietary factors 
    Nomura et al. (20) – – 1.00 (0.64–1.57) 1.1 (0.5–2.2) 142/142 Age, smoking 
    Gann et al. (17) – – 0.89 (0.74–1.07) 0.75 (0.54–1.06) 578/1294 Age, smoking, exercise, follow-up time, BMI, plasma cholesterol, alcohol, vitamin use 
    Giovanucci et al. (22) 1.01 (0.92–1.10) 0.84 (0.73–0.96) – – 2481/47,365 Age, time, family history, BMI, energy intake, vitamins 
    Schuurman et al. (24) 0.95 (0.79–1.14) 0.98 (0.71–1.34) – – 642/58,279 Age, history, socioeconomic status, alcohol 
    Huang et al. (CLUE I; Ref. 28) – – 0.85 (0.62–1.18) 0.83 (0.46–1.48) 182/364 Age, race, date of blood donation, total lipid level, hours since last meal, education 
    Huang et al. (CLUE II; 28) – – 0.82 (0.56–1.21) 0.79 (0.41–1.54) 142/284 Age, race, date of blood donation, total lipid level, hours since last meal, education, BMI 
AuthorDiet lycopene (moderate intake)Diet lycopene (high intake)Serum lycopene (moderate value)Serum lycopene (high value)Cases/controls or cohort sizeVariables of adjustment
Case-control studies       
    Key et al. (5) 0.90 (0.63–1.29) 0.99 (0.68–1.45) – – – Age, energy intake, ethnicity 
    Meyer et al. (26) 1.28 (0.81–2.01) 1.73 (0.92–3.26) – – 215/593 Age, education, family history, energy intake 
    Jain et al. (3) 0.90 (0.74–1.10) 1.01 (0.76–1.35) – – 617/636 Age, total energy, vasectomy, smoking, marital status, study area, BMI, vitamin use, diet 
    Deneo-Pelligrini et al. (27) 1.13 (0.76–1.68) 1.2 (0.7–2.2) – – 175/233 Age, residence, education, family history, BMI, energy intake 
    Cohen et al. (4) 1.08 (0.83–1.39) 0.89 (0.60–1.31) – – 628/602 Age, race, fat, energy, family history, BMI, antigen tests, education 
    Norrish et al. (16) 0.81 (0.60– 1.11) 0.76 (0.50–1.17) – – 317/480 Age, height, NSAIDs, socioeconomic status 
    Lu et al. (19) 1.03 (0.44– 2.38) 0.69 (0.23–2.08) 0.45 (0.21–0.96) 0.17 (0.04–0.78) 65/132 Age, race, smoking, education, family history, alcohol, calories 
    Vogt et al. (10) – – 0.84 (0.57–1.23) 0.65 (0.36–1.15) 209/228 Age, race, study center, time of blood draw 
Cohort or nested case-control studies       
    Hsing et al. (18) – – 0.69 (0.39–1.23) 0.50 (0.20–1.29) 103/103 Age, race, smoking, education, time of last meal 
    Cerhan et al. (25) – 0.5 (0.3–0.9) – – 101/1575 Age, energy, nondietary factors 
    Nomura et al. (20) – – 1.00 (0.64–1.57) 1.1 (0.5–2.2) 142/142 Age, smoking 
    Gann et al. (17) – – 0.89 (0.74–1.07) 0.75 (0.54–1.06) 578/1294 Age, smoking, exercise, follow-up time, BMI, plasma cholesterol, alcohol, vitamin use 
    Giovanucci et al. (22) 1.01 (0.92–1.10) 0.84 (0.73–0.96) – – 2481/47,365 Age, time, family history, BMI, energy intake, vitamins 
    Schuurman et al. (24) 0.95 (0.79–1.14) 0.98 (0.71–1.34) – – 642/58,279 Age, history, socioeconomic status, alcohol 
    Huang et al. (CLUE I; Ref. 28) – – 0.85 (0.62–1.18) 0.83 (0.46–1.48) 182/364 Age, race, date of blood donation, total lipid level, hours since last meal, education 
    Huang et al. (CLUE II; 28) – – 0.82 (0.56–1.21) 0.79 (0.41–1.54) 142/284 Age, race, date of blood donation, total lipid level, hours since last meal, education, BMI 

Note: Moderate intake corresponds to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quintiles of the distribution, while high intake corresponds to the 5th quintile. Moderate value corresponds to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quintiles of the distribution, while high value corresponds to the 5th quintile.

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