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Table 1.

RRs and 95% CIs of prostate cancer by tomato intake

AuthorRaw tomatoes (moderate intake)Raw tomatoes (high intake)Cooked tomatoes (moderate intake)Cooked tomatoes (high intake)Cases/controls or cohort sizeVariables of adjustment
Case-control studies       
    Key et al. (5) 1.18 (0.87–1.60) 1.06 (0.55–1.62) 0.89 (0.66–1.20) 0.92 (0.59–1.42) 328/328 Age, energy intake, ethnicity 
    Tzonou et al. (2) 0.85 (0.40–1.81) 0.53 (0.08–2.9) 0.64 (0.27–1.53) 0.46 (0.04–3.60) 320/246 Age, height, BMI, energy intake 
    Jain et al. (3) 0.77 (0.64–0.94) 0.64 (0.45–0.91) – – 617/636 Age, calories, vasectomy, smoking, marital status, study location, BMI, vitamin use, diet 
    Cohen et al. (4) 1.20 (0.89–1.62) 1.22 (0.83–1.80) 0.97 (0.73–1.30) 0.90 (0.57–1.42) 682/602 Age, race, fat, energy, family history, BMI, antigen tests, education 
    Villeneuve et al. (14) 0.98 (0.84–1.14) 1.0 (0.7–1.3) – – 1623/1623 Age, location, race, smoking, BMI, diet, alcohol, income, diet, family history 
    Kolonel et al. (15) 1.00 (0.87–1.15) 1.07 (0.83–1.38) 1.07 (1.06–1.08) 0.94 (0.58–1.52) 1619/1618 Age, education, race 
    Norrish et al. (16) 0.89 (0.67–1.19) 1.01 (0.66–1.53) 0.90 (0.66–1.22) 0.82 (0.53–1.26) 317/480 Age, site, calories, height, NSAIDs, socioeconomic status 
Cohort studies       
    Mills et al. (21) 0.62 (0.40– 0.96) 0.57 (0.35–0.93) – – 180/1400 Age 
    Giovanucci et al. (23) 0.91 (0.78– 1.05) 0.74 (0.58–0.93) – – 773/47,894 Age, calories, family history, vasectomy, fat, retinol 
    Giovanucci et al. (22) – – 0.88 (0.74–1.05) 0.77 (0.66–0.90) 2481/47,365 Time, ancestry, BMI, calories, vitamins 
AuthorRaw tomatoes (moderate intake)Raw tomatoes (high intake)Cooked tomatoes (moderate intake)Cooked tomatoes (high intake)Cases/controls or cohort sizeVariables of adjustment
Case-control studies       
    Key et al. (5) 1.18 (0.87–1.60) 1.06 (0.55–1.62) 0.89 (0.66–1.20) 0.92 (0.59–1.42) 328/328 Age, energy intake, ethnicity 
    Tzonou et al. (2) 0.85 (0.40–1.81) 0.53 (0.08–2.9) 0.64 (0.27–1.53) 0.46 (0.04–3.60) 320/246 Age, height, BMI, energy intake 
    Jain et al. (3) 0.77 (0.64–0.94) 0.64 (0.45–0.91) – – 617/636 Age, calories, vasectomy, smoking, marital status, study location, BMI, vitamin use, diet 
    Cohen et al. (4) 1.20 (0.89–1.62) 1.22 (0.83–1.80) 0.97 (0.73–1.30) 0.90 (0.57–1.42) 682/602 Age, race, fat, energy, family history, BMI, antigen tests, education 
    Villeneuve et al. (14) 0.98 (0.84–1.14) 1.0 (0.7–1.3) – – 1623/1623 Age, location, race, smoking, BMI, diet, alcohol, income, diet, family history 
    Kolonel et al. (15) 1.00 (0.87–1.15) 1.07 (0.83–1.38) 1.07 (1.06–1.08) 0.94 (0.58–1.52) 1619/1618 Age, education, race 
    Norrish et al. (16) 0.89 (0.67–1.19) 1.01 (0.66–1.53) 0.90 (0.66–1.22) 0.82 (0.53–1.26) 317/480 Age, site, calories, height, NSAIDs, socioeconomic status 
Cohort studies       
    Mills et al. (21) 0.62 (0.40– 0.96) 0.57 (0.35–0.93) – – 180/1400 Age 
    Giovanucci et al. (23) 0.91 (0.78– 1.05) 0.74 (0.58–0.93) – – 773/47,894 Age, calories, family history, vasectomy, fat, retinol 
    Giovanucci et al. (22) – – 0.88 (0.74–1.05) 0.77 (0.66–0.90) 2481/47,365 Time, ancestry, BMI, calories, vitamins 

Note: Moderate intake corresponds to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quintiles of the distribution, while high intake corresponds to the 5th quintile. BMI, body mass index; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

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