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Table 5.

Demographic and psychosocial factors associated with increased dietary supplement use among colon cancer survivors and population-based controls in North Carolina (N = 737)

CharacteristicSurvivors (n = 278)
Controls (n = 459)
Took ≥1 new dietary supplement between NCCCS and NC STRIDES (yes)
N (%)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)P valueP valueN (%)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)P valueP value
All 120 (43) — — — 195 (42) —   
Age         
    <55 years 12 (10) 1.0  0.0005 22 (11) 1.0  0.14 
    55-64 years 37 (31) 5.9 (2.4-14.4) <0.0001  40 (21) 1.3 (0.6-2.7) 0.47  
    ≥65 years 71 (59) 2.8 (1.2-6.4) 0.01  133 (68) 1.9 (0.9-3.7) 0.07  
    P for trend  0.001    0.13   
Sex         
    Males 53 (44) 1.0 0.0005  86 (44) 1.0  0.003 
    Females 67 (56) 2.6 (1.5-4.4) 0.0005  109 (56) 1.8 (1.2-2.7) 0.003  
    P value  0.0005    0.003   
Education         
    ≤High school 68 (57) 1.0  0.05 92 (48) 1.0  0.26 
    Some college 16 (13) 0.5 (0.3-1.1) 0.08  46 (24) 1.5 (0.9-2.6) 0.10  
    College graduate/Advanced degree 35 (29) 1.4 (0.7, 2.6) 0.30  55 (28) 1.1 (0.7-1.8) 0.57  
    P for trend  0.98    0.29   
Race         
    White 84 (70) 1.0  0.004 136 (70) 1.0  0.0004 
    African American 36 (30) 0.4 (0.3-0.8) 0.004  59 (30) 0.5 (0.3-0.7) 0.0004  
    P value  0.004    0.0004   
Marital status         
    Never married 6 (5) 1.0  0.20 4 (2) 1.0  0.47 
    Divorced/separated/widowed 31 (26) 0.4 (0.1-1.4) 0.15  58 (30) 1.5 (0.4-5.4) 0.56  
    Married/living with partner 82 (69) 0.7 (0.2-2.2) 0.50  132 (68) 1.8 (0.5-6.4) 0.35  
    P for trend  0.22    0.48   
Employment status         
    Employed outside the home 40 (33) 1.0  0.86 73 (37) 1.0  0.21 
Retired/Not employed outside the home 80 (67) 0.9 (0.5-1.8) 0.86  122 (63) 0.7 (0.5-1.2) 0.21  
Self-rated health         
    Fair/Poor 15 (13) 1.0  0.18 29 (15) 1.0  0.60 
    Good 53 (45) 1.9 (0.9-4.2) 0.10  88 (46) 1.3 (0.7-2.4) 0.33  
    Excellent/Very good 51 (43) 1.3 (0.6-2.9) 0.49  76 (39) 1.2 (0.6-2.2) 0.60  
    P for trend  0.28    0.48   
Self-efficacy§         
    Somewhat unsure/Very unsure 47 (44) 1.0   87 (49) 1.0  0.94 
    Sure 22 (21) 1.0 (0.5-2.1) 0.98 0.28 32 (18) 0.7 (0.4-1.2) 0.20  
    Very sure 37 (35) 1.6 (0.9-3.1) 0.14  60 (34) 1.2 (0.7-1.9) 0.55  
    P for trend  0.25    0.92   
Barriers         
    Disagree a lot 35 (38) 1.0 0.45  70 (41) 1.0  0.06 
    Disagree a little 45 (48) 0.7 (0.4-1.4) 0.28  82 (49) 0.8 (0.5-1.3) 0.38  
    Agree a lot or a little 13 (14) 0.6 (0.2-1.4) 0.37  17 (10) 0.4 (0.2-0.9) 0.02  
    P for trend  0.21    0.02   
Social support         
    Not at all/Not applicable 13 (12) 1.0 0.69  14 (9) 1.0  0.97 
    Some 38 (37) 1.1 (0.4-2 .8) 0.91  64 (40) 0.9 (0.4-2.2) 0.87  
    A lot 53 (51) 0.8 (0.3-2.0) 0.66  83 (52) 0.9 (0.4-2.0) 0.81  
    P for trend  0.79    0.83   
CharacteristicSurvivors (n = 278)
Controls (n = 459)
Took ≥1 new dietary supplement between NCCCS and NC STRIDES (yes)
N (%)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)P valueP valueN (%)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)P valueP value
All 120 (43) — — — 195 (42) —   
Age         
    <55 years 12 (10) 1.0  0.0005 22 (11) 1.0  0.14 
    55-64 years 37 (31) 5.9 (2.4-14.4) <0.0001  40 (21) 1.3 (0.6-2.7) 0.47  
    ≥65 years 71 (59) 2.8 (1.2-6.4) 0.01  133 (68) 1.9 (0.9-3.7) 0.07  
    P for trend  0.001    0.13   
Sex         
    Males 53 (44) 1.0 0.0005  86 (44) 1.0  0.003 
    Females 67 (56) 2.6 (1.5-4.4) 0.0005  109 (56) 1.8 (1.2-2.7) 0.003  
    P value  0.0005    0.003   
Education         
    ≤High school 68 (57) 1.0  0.05 92 (48) 1.0  0.26 
    Some college 16 (13) 0.5 (0.3-1.1) 0.08  46 (24) 1.5 (0.9-2.6) 0.10  
    College graduate/Advanced degree 35 (29) 1.4 (0.7, 2.6) 0.30  55 (28) 1.1 (0.7-1.8) 0.57  
    P for trend  0.98    0.29   
Race         
    White 84 (70) 1.0  0.004 136 (70) 1.0  0.0004 
    African American 36 (30) 0.4 (0.3-0.8) 0.004  59 (30) 0.5 (0.3-0.7) 0.0004  
    P value  0.004    0.0004   
Marital status         
    Never married 6 (5) 1.0  0.20 4 (2) 1.0  0.47 
    Divorced/separated/widowed 31 (26) 0.4 (0.1-1.4) 0.15  58 (30) 1.5 (0.4-5.4) 0.56  
    Married/living with partner 82 (69) 0.7 (0.2-2.2) 0.50  132 (68) 1.8 (0.5-6.4) 0.35  
    P for trend  0.22    0.48   
Employment status         
    Employed outside the home 40 (33) 1.0  0.86 73 (37) 1.0  0.21 
Retired/Not employed outside the home 80 (67) 0.9 (0.5-1.8) 0.86  122 (63) 0.7 (0.5-1.2) 0.21  
Self-rated health         
    Fair/Poor 15 (13) 1.0  0.18 29 (15) 1.0  0.60 
    Good 53 (45) 1.9 (0.9-4.2) 0.10  88 (46) 1.3 (0.7-2.4) 0.33  
    Excellent/Very good 51 (43) 1.3 (0.6-2.9) 0.49  76 (39) 1.2 (0.6-2.2) 0.60  
    P for trend  0.28    0.48   
Self-efficacy§         
    Somewhat unsure/Very unsure 47 (44) 1.0   87 (49) 1.0  0.94 
    Sure 22 (21) 1.0 (0.5-2.1) 0.98 0.28 32 (18) 0.7 (0.4-1.2) 0.20  
    Very sure 37 (35) 1.6 (0.9-3.1) 0.14  60 (34) 1.2 (0.7-1.9) 0.55  
    P for trend  0.25    0.92   
Barriers         
    Disagree a lot 35 (38) 1.0 0.45  70 (41) 1.0  0.06 
    Disagree a little 45 (48) 0.7 (0.4-1.4) 0.28  82 (49) 0.8 (0.5-1.3) 0.38  
    Agree a lot or a little 13 (14) 0.6 (0.2-1.4) 0.37  17 (10) 0.4 (0.2-0.9) 0.02  
    P for trend  0.21    0.02   
Social support         
    Not at all/Not applicable 13 (12) 1.0 0.69  14 (9) 1.0  0.97 
    Some 38 (37) 1.1 (0.4-2 .8) 0.91  64 (40) 0.9 (0.4-2.2) 0.87  
    A lot 53 (51) 0.8 (0.3-2.0) 0.66  83 (52) 0.9 (0.4-2.0) 0.81  
    P for trend  0.79    0.83   
*

Adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and employment status.

P value comparing each level of the variable to the reference.

P value comparing all levels of the variable simultaneously.

§

Question: How sure are you that you have the ability to succeed in eating five or more servings of fruits and vegetables every day for the next 6 months? (Very sure, sure, somewhat sure, somewhat unsure, very unsure, don't know/refused). Very sure = higher self-efficacy.

Question: Thinking about eating more fruits and vegetables than you do now, please tell me whether you agree or disagree with the following statements. It would be hard for me to eat more fruits and vegetables than I do now because: (1) I'm not in the habit of eating them, (2) I can't get them easily when I eat out, (3) I don't have enough time to prepare them, (4) They cost too much, (5) I don't think that eating more of them will make me healthier, (6) I eat alone so I don't fix enough of them. (Agree a lot, agree a little, disagree a lot, disagree a little, don't know/refused). Agree a lot or a little = having more barriers.

Question: If you tried to eat healthier foods, how much would you count on those close to you to: (1) Encourage you, (2) Tell you about healthier foods and how to prepare them, (3) Prepare healthier foods with or for you, (4) Eat healthier foods with you. (A lot, some, not at all, don't know/refused). A lot = more social support.

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