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Table 4.

Demographic and psychosocial factors associated with increased vegetable intake among colon cancer survivors and population-based controls in North Carolina (N = 737)

CharacteristicSurvivors (n = 278)
Controls (n = 459)
Increased vegetable intake between NCCCS and NC STRIDES (yes)
N (%)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)P valueP valueN (%)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)P valueP value
All 166 (60) — — —  245 (53) —  
Age         
    <55 years 27 (16) 1.0   0.49 30 (12) 1.0  0.72 
    55-64 years 43 (26) 1.7 (0.8-3.7) 0.19  39 (16) 0.7 (0.3-1.3) 0.27  
    ≥65 years 96 (58) 1.1 (0.5-2.3) 0.80  176 (72) 1.4 (0.8-2.7) 0.27  
    P for trend  0.80       
Sex         
    Males 89 (54) 1.0  0.61 120 (49) 1.0  0.35 
    Females 77 (46) 0.9 (0.5-1.5) 0.61  125 (51) 1.2 (0.8-1.8) 0.35  
  0.61    0.35   
Education         
    ≤High school         
    Some college 94 (57) 1.0  0.44 121 (50) 1.0  0.27 
    College graduate/Advanced degree 33 (20) 1.6 (0.8-3.1) 0.21  58 (24) 1.4 (0.9-2.4) 0.15  
    P for trend 39 (23) 1.2 (0.6-2.3) 0.54  61 (25) 0.9 (0.6-1.5) 0.80  
  0.30    0.68   
Race         
    White         
    African American 102 (61) 1.0  0.92 153 (62) 1.0  0.77 
 64 (39) 1.0 (0.6-1.7) 0.92  92 (38) 0.9 (0.6-1.4) 0.77  
  0.92    0.77   
Marital status         
    Never married 9 (5) 1.0  0.78 6 (2) 1.0  0.99 
    Divorced/separated/widowed 57 (35) 1.2 (0.3-4.6) 0.81  80 (33) 1.0 (0.3-3.5) 0.95  
    Married/living with partner 99 (60) 0.7 (0.2-2.3) 0.51  159 (65) 1.0 (0.3-3.4) 0.97  
  0.97    0.96   
Employment status         
    Employed outside the home 51 (31) 1.0  0.03 82 (33) 1.0  0.98 
    Retired/Not employed outside the home 114 (69) 2.0 (1.1-3.6) 0.03  163 (67) 1.0 (0.6-1.6) 0.98  
Self-rated health         
    Fair/Poor 23 (14) 1.0  0.48 45 (19) 1.0  0.46 
    Good 70 (42) 1.4 (0.7-3.0) 0.32  109 (45) 0.8 (0.5-1.4) 0.42  
    Excellent/Very Good 72 (44) 1.6 (0.7-3.3) 0.23  89 (37) 0.7 (0.4-1.2) 0.21  
    P for trend  0.23    0.24   
Self-efficacy§         
    Somewhat unsure/Very unsure 68 (47) 1.0  0.86 103 (48) 1.0  0.65 
    Sure 31 (22) 1.1 (0.6-2.3) 0.75  42 (20) 1.1 (0.6-1.8) 0.83  
    Very Sure 45 (31) 1.2 (0.6-2.2) 0.60  69 (32) 1.2 (0.8-2.0) 0.35  
    P for trend  0.59    0.43   
Barriers         
    Disagree a lot 48 (36) 1.0  0.52 78 (37) 1.0  0.90 
    Disagree a little 60 (44) 0.8 (0.4-1.5) 0.48  99 (48) 1.1 (0.7-1.7) 0.65  
    Agree a lot or a little 27 (20) 1.2 (0.5-3.0) 0.63  31 (15) 1.1 (0.6-2.0) 0.86  
    P for trend  0.85    0.78   
Social support         
    Not at all/Not Applicable 20 (14) 1.0  0.58 15 (7) 1.0  0.28 
    Some 45 (31) 0.6 (0.2-1.6) 0.34  85 (42) 1.8 (0.8-4.1) 0.15  
    A lot 79 (55) 0.8 (0.3-2.0) 0.58  104 (51) 1.4 (0.6-3.1) 0.40  
    P for trend  0.47    0.28   
CharacteristicSurvivors (n = 278)
Controls (n = 459)
Increased vegetable intake between NCCCS and NC STRIDES (yes)
N (%)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)P valueP valueN (%)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)P valueP value
All 166 (60) — — —  245 (53) —  
Age         
    <55 years 27 (16) 1.0   0.49 30 (12) 1.0  0.72 
    55-64 years 43 (26) 1.7 (0.8-3.7) 0.19  39 (16) 0.7 (0.3-1.3) 0.27  
    ≥65 years 96 (58) 1.1 (0.5-2.3) 0.80  176 (72) 1.4 (0.8-2.7) 0.27  
    P for trend  0.80       
Sex         
    Males 89 (54) 1.0  0.61 120 (49) 1.0  0.35 
    Females 77 (46) 0.9 (0.5-1.5) 0.61  125 (51) 1.2 (0.8-1.8) 0.35  
  0.61    0.35   
Education         
    ≤High school         
    Some college 94 (57) 1.0  0.44 121 (50) 1.0  0.27 
    College graduate/Advanced degree 33 (20) 1.6 (0.8-3.1) 0.21  58 (24) 1.4 (0.9-2.4) 0.15  
    P for trend 39 (23) 1.2 (0.6-2.3) 0.54  61 (25) 0.9 (0.6-1.5) 0.80  
  0.30    0.68   
Race         
    White         
    African American 102 (61) 1.0  0.92 153 (62) 1.0  0.77 
 64 (39) 1.0 (0.6-1.7) 0.92  92 (38) 0.9 (0.6-1.4) 0.77  
  0.92    0.77   
Marital status         
    Never married 9 (5) 1.0  0.78 6 (2) 1.0  0.99 
    Divorced/separated/widowed 57 (35) 1.2 (0.3-4.6) 0.81  80 (33) 1.0 (0.3-3.5) 0.95  
    Married/living with partner 99 (60) 0.7 (0.2-2.3) 0.51  159 (65) 1.0 (0.3-3.4) 0.97  
  0.97    0.96   
Employment status         
    Employed outside the home 51 (31) 1.0  0.03 82 (33) 1.0  0.98 
    Retired/Not employed outside the home 114 (69) 2.0 (1.1-3.6) 0.03  163 (67) 1.0 (0.6-1.6) 0.98  
Self-rated health         
    Fair/Poor 23 (14) 1.0  0.48 45 (19) 1.0  0.46 
    Good 70 (42) 1.4 (0.7-3.0) 0.32  109 (45) 0.8 (0.5-1.4) 0.42  
    Excellent/Very Good 72 (44) 1.6 (0.7-3.3) 0.23  89 (37) 0.7 (0.4-1.2) 0.21  
    P for trend  0.23    0.24   
Self-efficacy§         
    Somewhat unsure/Very unsure 68 (47) 1.0  0.86 103 (48) 1.0  0.65 
    Sure 31 (22) 1.1 (0.6-2.3) 0.75  42 (20) 1.1 (0.6-1.8) 0.83  
    Very Sure 45 (31) 1.2 (0.6-2.2) 0.60  69 (32) 1.2 (0.8-2.0) 0.35  
    P for trend  0.59    0.43   
Barriers         
    Disagree a lot 48 (36) 1.0  0.52 78 (37) 1.0  0.90 
    Disagree a little 60 (44) 0.8 (0.4-1.5) 0.48  99 (48) 1.1 (0.7-1.7) 0.65  
    Agree a lot or a little 27 (20) 1.2 (0.5-3.0) 0.63  31 (15) 1.1 (0.6-2.0) 0.86  
    P for trend  0.85    0.78   
Social support         
    Not at all/Not Applicable 20 (14) 1.0  0.58 15 (7) 1.0  0.28 
    Some 45 (31) 0.6 (0.2-1.6) 0.34  85 (42) 1.8 (0.8-4.1) 0.15  
    A lot 79 (55) 0.8 (0.3-2.0) 0.58  104 (51) 1.4 (0.6-3.1) 0.40  
    P for trend  0.47    0.28   
*

Adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and employment status.

P value comparing each level of the variable to the reference.

P value comparing all levels of the variable simultaneously.

§

Question: How sure are you that you can have the ability to succeed in eating five or more servings of fruits and vegetables every day for the next 6 months? (Very sure, sure, somewhat sure, somewhat unsure, very unsure, don't know/refused). Very sure = higher self-efficacy.

Question: Thinking about eating more fruits and vegetables than you do now, please tell me whether you agree or disagree with the following statements. It would be hard for me to eat more fruits and vegetables than I do now because: (1) I'm not in the habit of eating them, (2) I can't get them easily when I eat out, (3) I don't have enough time to prepare them, (4) They cost too much, (5) I don't think that eating more of them will make me healthier, (6) I eat alone so I don't fix enough of them. (Agree a lot, agree a little, disagree a lot, disagree a little, don't know/refused). Agree a lot or a little = having more barriers.

Question: If you tried to eat healthier foods, how much would you count on those close to you to: (1) Encourage you, (2) Tell you about healthier foods and how to prepare them, (3) Prepare healthier foods with or for you, (4) Eat healthier foods with you. (A lot, some, not at all, don't know/refused). A lot = more social support.

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