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Table 2.

Changes in health-related behaviors (diet, physical activity, dietary supplement use, and cancer screening) among colon cancer survivors and population-based controls in North Carolina (N = 737)

CharacteristicSurvivors (n = 278)
Controls (n = 459)
P value for change*
NCCCSNC STRIDESChangeP valueNCCCSNC STRIDESChangeP value
Fruits and fruit juices§, servings per day (%)          
    <2 37.6 37.0 −0.6 0.86 31.3 32.0 0.7 0.60 0.48 
    2-4.9 49.6 48.6 −1.0  52.8 54.5 1.7   
    ≥5 12.8 14.4 1.6  15.9 13.5 −2.4   
        Mean ± SD 2.8 (1.8) 2.9 (1.9) 0.1 0.71 3.1 (1.8) 3.0 (2.0) −0.1 0.20 0.96 
Vegetables, servings per day (%)          
    <2 57.9 47.8 −10.1 0.01 44.4 41.2 −3.2 0.11 0.17 
    2-4.9 41.0 47.8 6.8  54.7 56.2 1.5   
    ≥5 1.1 4.3 3.2  0.9 2.6 1.7   
        Mean ± SD 2.0 (0.9) 2.3 (1.2) 0.3 0.002 2.3 (1.0) 2.4 (1.2) 0.1 0.09 0.93 
Non-occupational physical activity, metabolic equivalent task-hours/week, mean (SD)          
    1st quartile 165 (19) 188 (8) 23 0.0001 167 (21) 188 (8) 21 <0.0001 0.99 
    2nd quartile 205 (5) 209 (5)  206 (6) 209 (5)   
    3rd quartile 222 (4) 223 (4)  223 (4) 222 (3) −1   
    4th quartile 271 (46) 257 (74) −14  259 (26) 251 (34) −8   
        Mean ± SD 179 (37) 228 (47) 49 0.0001 187 (36) 227 (27) 40 <0.0001 0.91 
Alcohol consumption, drinks/day, mean (SD)          
    Non-drinker (%) 65.5 67.5 2.0 0.35 66.7 61.8 −4.9 0.74 0.06 
    Drinker category 1 0.1 (0.1) 0.1 (0)  0.1 (0) 0.1 (0)   
    Drinker category 2 0.4 (0.1) 0.4 (0.2)  0.4 (0.2) 0.4 (0.2)   
    Drinker category 3 2.3 (1.5) 1.8 (1.1) −0.5  1.7 (1.2) 1.7 (0.9)   
        Mean ± SD 0.4 (1.0) 0.3 (0.7) −0.1 0.05 0.3 (0.7) 0.2 (0.5) −0.1 0.16 0.95 
Dietary supplement use (%)          
    Multivitamin 31.3 42.8 11.5 0.02 36.7 45.5 8.8 0.02 0.46 
    Folate (folic acid) 1.5 6.8 5.3 0.005 1.8 7.2 5.4 0.0004 0.95 
    Antioxidant combination 0.4 20.5 20.1 <0.0001 0.9 29.4 28.5 <0.0001 0.0003 
    Minerals 11.8 26.6 14.8 <0.0001 17.0 26.1 9.1 0.0003 0.06 
Adherence to American Cancer Society colon cancer screening recommendations¶,**          
Fecal occult blood testing — — — — 32.0 21.8 −10.2 0.0005 N/A 
    Barium enema — — — — 10.9 16.2 5.3 0.02 N/A 
    Sigmoidoscopy — — — — 21.4 36.6 15.2 <0.0001 N/A 
    Colonoscopy — — — — 31.8 39.7 7.9 0.01 N/A 
CharacteristicSurvivors (n = 278)
Controls (n = 459)
P value for change*
NCCCSNC STRIDESChangeP valueNCCCSNC STRIDESChangeP value
Fruits and fruit juices§, servings per day (%)          
    <2 37.6 37.0 −0.6 0.86 31.3 32.0 0.7 0.60 0.48 
    2-4.9 49.6 48.6 −1.0  52.8 54.5 1.7   
    ≥5 12.8 14.4 1.6  15.9 13.5 −2.4   
        Mean ± SD 2.8 (1.8) 2.9 (1.9) 0.1 0.71 3.1 (1.8) 3.0 (2.0) −0.1 0.20 0.96 
Vegetables, servings per day (%)          
    <2 57.9 47.8 −10.1 0.01 44.4 41.2 −3.2 0.11 0.17 
    2-4.9 41.0 47.8 6.8  54.7 56.2 1.5   
    ≥5 1.1 4.3 3.2  0.9 2.6 1.7   
        Mean ± SD 2.0 (0.9) 2.3 (1.2) 0.3 0.002 2.3 (1.0) 2.4 (1.2) 0.1 0.09 0.93 
Non-occupational physical activity, metabolic equivalent task-hours/week, mean (SD)          
    1st quartile 165 (19) 188 (8) 23 0.0001 167 (21) 188 (8) 21 <0.0001 0.99 
    2nd quartile 205 (5) 209 (5)  206 (6) 209 (5)   
    3rd quartile 222 (4) 223 (4)  223 (4) 222 (3) −1   
    4th quartile 271 (46) 257 (74) −14  259 (26) 251 (34) −8   
        Mean ± SD 179 (37) 228 (47) 49 0.0001 187 (36) 227 (27) 40 <0.0001 0.91 
Alcohol consumption, drinks/day, mean (SD)          
    Non-drinker (%) 65.5 67.5 2.0 0.35 66.7 61.8 −4.9 0.74 0.06 
    Drinker category 1 0.1 (0.1) 0.1 (0)  0.1 (0) 0.1 (0)   
    Drinker category 2 0.4 (0.1) 0.4 (0.2)  0.4 (0.2) 0.4 (0.2)   
    Drinker category 3 2.3 (1.5) 1.8 (1.1) −0.5  1.7 (1.2) 1.7 (0.9)   
        Mean ± SD 0.4 (1.0) 0.3 (0.7) −0.1 0.05 0.3 (0.7) 0.2 (0.5) −0.1 0.16 0.95 
Dietary supplement use (%)          
    Multivitamin 31.3 42.8 11.5 0.02 36.7 45.5 8.8 0.02 0.46 
    Folate (folic acid) 1.5 6.8 5.3 0.005 1.8 7.2 5.4 0.0004 0.95 
    Antioxidant combination 0.4 20.5 20.1 <0.0001 0.9 29.4 28.5 <0.0001 0.0003 
    Minerals 11.8 26.6 14.8 <0.0001 17.0 26.1 9.1 0.0003 0.06 
Adherence to American Cancer Society colon cancer screening recommendations¶,**          
Fecal occult blood testing — — — — 32.0 21.8 −10.2 0.0005 N/A 
    Barium enema — — — — 10.9 16.2 5.3 0.02 N/A 
    Sigmoidoscopy — — — — 21.4 36.6 15.2 <0.0001 N/A 
    Colonoscopy — — — — 31.8 39.7 7.9 0.01 N/A 
*

P value for degree or amount of change between survivors and controls.

Change = NC STRIDES − NCCCS.

Adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and employment status.

§

Fruits include bananas, apples/apple sauce, grapefruit, pears, cantaloupe/honeydew melon, strawberries/other berries, oranges, peaches/nectarines, oranges, and fruit salad. Juices include apple, grape juice, or any other fruit juices.

Vegetables include string beans, green peas, lima, red, pinto beans, corn, tomatoes, broccoli, cauliflower/brussel sprouts, spinach, collard greens, cabbage/coleslaw, carrots, mixed vegetables, and green/tossed salads.

American Cancer Society recommendations: fecal occult blood testing, 2 years; barium enema, 5 years; sigmoidoscopy, 5 years; colonoscopy, 10 years.

**

No colon cancer screening data available for cases in NC STRIDES.

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