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Table 1.

Selected baseline characteristics of study participants by serum 25(OH)D tertiles (the cutoff points are 34.0 and 51.0 nmol/L in men and 30.0 and 46.0 nmol/L in women)

Serum 25(OH)D
First tertileSecond tertileThird tertile
Men (range of vitamin D in nmol/L) 5.0-34.0 35.0-51.0 52.0-180.0 
Sample size 1,094 1,069 1,044 
Serum 25(OH)D level (nmol/L) 25.5 ± 6.1 42.3 ± 4.8 68.7 ± 15.5 
Season    
    Summer (Jun-Sep) 7.2 (44) 21.6 (132) 71.2 (434) 
    Non-Summer (Oct-May) 40.4 (1,050) 36.1 (937) 23.5 (610) 
Age (y) 51.6 ± 14.5 48.8 ± 13.1 48.5 ± 12.5 
Education    
    Low 37.8 (815) 31.5 (679) 30.8 (664) 
    High 26.5 (275) 37.2 (386) 36.4 (378) 
Marital status    
    Unmarried 42.2 (154) 29.6 (108) 28.2 (103) 
    Married* 32.2 (837) 34.1 (886) 33.7 (887) 
    Widowed 48.6 (52) 26.2 (28) 25.2 (27) 
    Divorced 38.0 (49) 34.9 (45) 27.1 (35) 
Smoking    
    Nonsmokers 30.9 (574) 34.2 (635) 34.9 (649) 
    Smokers with low cotinine 33.5 (119) 34.7 (123) 31.8 (113) 
    Smokers with average cotinine 39.7 (178) 30.4 (136) 29.9 (134) 
    Smokers with high cotinine 40.9 (221) 32.0 (173) 27.0 (146) 
BMI (kg/m2   
    <23.0 41.1 (285) 31.0 (215) 28.0 (194) 
    23.0-29.9 31.3 (670) 34.1 (731) 34.6 (740) 
    ≥30.0 37.3 (138) 33.2 (123) 29.5 (109) 
Alcohol consumption (g/wk ethanol)    
    0 46.4 (400) 27.1 (234) 26.5 (229) 
    1-14.9 32.6 (165) 37.4 (189) 30.0 (152) 
    ≥15 28.7 (525) 35.2 (645) 36.1 (662) 
    
Women (range of vitamin D in nmol/L) 4.0-30.0 31.0-46.0 47.0-151.0 
Sample size 1,226 1,283 1,221 
Serum 25(OH)D level (nmol/L) 22.7 ± 5.3 38.1 ± 4.6 62.5 ± 14.6 
Season    
    Summer (Jun-Sep) 8.9 (61) 26.1 (179) 65.1 (446) 
    Non-Summer (Oct-May) 38.3 (1,165) 36.3 (1,104) 25.5 (775) 
Age (y) 55.6 ± 15.2 51.5 ± 14.1 49.0 ± 13.0 
Education    
    Low 36.9 (931) 34.0 (856) 29.1 (733) 
    High 24.5 (294) 35.1 (422) 40.4 (485) 
Marital status    
    Unmarried 37.8 (141) 30.8 (115) 31.4 (117) 
    Married* 28.4 (698) 35.2 (866) 36.5 (897) 
    Widowed 46.4 (310) 32.2 (215) 21.4 (143) 
    Divorced 34.1 (77) 37.6 (85) 28.3 (64) 
Smoking    
    Nonsmokers 33.8 (1,024) 33.7 (1,021) 32.4 (982) 
    Smokers with low cotinine 27.6 (90) 35.9 (117) 36.5 (119) 
    Smokers with average cotinine 28.0 (65) 40.1 (93) 31.9 (74) 
    Smokers with high cotinine 32.6 (46) 34.8 (49) 32.6 (46) 
BMI (kg/m2   
    <23.0 31.4 (334) 30.9 (329) 37.7 (401) 
    23.0-29.9 31.3 (621) 36.0 (714) 32.7 (648) 
    ≥30.0 39.1 (264) 35.5 (240) 25.4 (172) 
Alcohol consumption (g/wk ethanol)    
    0 39.9 (900) 25.3 (205) 17.8 (118) 
    1-14.9 34.6 (780) 34.6 (280) 33.6 (223) 
    ≥15 25.5 (574) 40.1 (325) 48.6 (322) 
Serum 25(OH)D
First tertileSecond tertileThird tertile
Men (range of vitamin D in nmol/L) 5.0-34.0 35.0-51.0 52.0-180.0 
Sample size 1,094 1,069 1,044 
Serum 25(OH)D level (nmol/L) 25.5 ± 6.1 42.3 ± 4.8 68.7 ± 15.5 
Season    
    Summer (Jun-Sep) 7.2 (44) 21.6 (132) 71.2 (434) 
    Non-Summer (Oct-May) 40.4 (1,050) 36.1 (937) 23.5 (610) 
Age (y) 51.6 ± 14.5 48.8 ± 13.1 48.5 ± 12.5 
Education    
    Low 37.8 (815) 31.5 (679) 30.8 (664) 
    High 26.5 (275) 37.2 (386) 36.4 (378) 
Marital status    
    Unmarried 42.2 (154) 29.6 (108) 28.2 (103) 
    Married* 32.2 (837) 34.1 (886) 33.7 (887) 
    Widowed 48.6 (52) 26.2 (28) 25.2 (27) 
    Divorced 38.0 (49) 34.9 (45) 27.1 (35) 
Smoking    
    Nonsmokers 30.9 (574) 34.2 (635) 34.9 (649) 
    Smokers with low cotinine 33.5 (119) 34.7 (123) 31.8 (113) 
    Smokers with average cotinine 39.7 (178) 30.4 (136) 29.9 (134) 
    Smokers with high cotinine 40.9 (221) 32.0 (173) 27.0 (146) 
BMI (kg/m2   
    <23.0 41.1 (285) 31.0 (215) 28.0 (194) 
    23.0-29.9 31.3 (670) 34.1 (731) 34.6 (740) 
    ≥30.0 37.3 (138) 33.2 (123) 29.5 (109) 
Alcohol consumption (g/wk ethanol)    
    0 46.4 (400) 27.1 (234) 26.5 (229) 
    1-14.9 32.6 (165) 37.4 (189) 30.0 (152) 
    ≥15 28.7 (525) 35.2 (645) 36.1 (662) 
    
Women (range of vitamin D in nmol/L) 4.0-30.0 31.0-46.0 47.0-151.0 
Sample size 1,226 1,283 1,221 
Serum 25(OH)D level (nmol/L) 22.7 ± 5.3 38.1 ± 4.6 62.5 ± 14.6 
Season    
    Summer (Jun-Sep) 8.9 (61) 26.1 (179) 65.1 (446) 
    Non-Summer (Oct-May) 38.3 (1,165) 36.3 (1,104) 25.5 (775) 
Age (y) 55.6 ± 15.2 51.5 ± 14.1 49.0 ± 13.0 
Education    
    Low 36.9 (931) 34.0 (856) 29.1 (733) 
    High 24.5 (294) 35.1 (422) 40.4 (485) 
Marital status    
    Unmarried 37.8 (141) 30.8 (115) 31.4 (117) 
    Married* 28.4 (698) 35.2 (866) 36.5 (897) 
    Widowed 46.4 (310) 32.2 (215) 21.4 (143) 
    Divorced 34.1 (77) 37.6 (85) 28.3 (64) 
Smoking    
    Nonsmokers 33.8 (1,024) 33.7 (1,021) 32.4 (982) 
    Smokers with low cotinine 27.6 (90) 35.9 (117) 36.5 (119) 
    Smokers with average cotinine 28.0 (65) 40.1 (93) 31.9 (74) 
    Smokers with high cotinine 32.6 (46) 34.8 (49) 32.6 (46) 
BMI (kg/m2   
    <23.0 31.4 (334) 30.9 (329) 37.7 (401) 
    23.0-29.9 31.3 (621) 36.0 (714) 32.7 (648) 
    ≥30.0 39.1 (264) 35.5 (240) 25.4 (172) 
Alcohol consumption (g/wk ethanol)    
    0 39.9 (900) 25.3 (205) 17.8 (118) 
    1-14.9 34.6 (780) 34.6 (280) 33.6 (223) 
    ≥15 25.5 (574) 40.1 (325) 48.6 (322) 

NOTE: Mean ± SD or % (number of observations).

*

Includes those who were in a common law marriage.

Nonsmokers included those who were never or ex-smokers and had serum cotinine ≤100 ng/mL; the rest of the subjects were divided into the tertiles based on their serum cotinine level.

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