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Table 2.

Empirical studies examining the role of emotion regulation as related to breast cancer screening behavior

Author(s)YearOperationalization of emotion regulationSample characteristicsMajor findings/conclusion regarding emotion regulation
Caplan et al. 1996 Denial: undermining the importance and urgency of the problem; the concept includes lack of concern, feeling that it would go away, misdiagnosing oneself with a less severe disease, and uncertainty about actual symptoms 367 breast cancer patients (161 Whites, 206 Blacks; 48% between 20 and 49 yr) Denial causes symptomatic women to delay breast cancer screenings. 
Chaitchik and Kreitler 1991 Repression: a combination of social desirability and anxiety scales; scales not described and no psychometrics given 466 women (210 nonattenders, 210 self-referred screeners, 46 in experimental/induced sample) Attenders scored higher on repressiveness than nonattenders. 
Consedine et al. 2004 Repression: the Index of Self-Regulation (Mendolia, 2002) combines the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale (α = .73) and the Anxiety subscale of the STPI (α = .75) to generate a continuous measure of repression 1364 women from six ethnic groups (mean age, 53.9 yr) Greater repression associated with greater self-reported mammography and breast self-examination even where background characteristics were controlled. 
Kreitler et al. 1990 Repression: a combination of social desirability and anxiety scales; scales not described and no psychometrics given 420 women (control: mean age, 40.5 yr; experimental: mean age, 40.9 yr; 63–65.7% Israeli, 20.5–22.4% Middle Eastern or North African, rest unknown) Attenders scored higher on repressiveness than nonattenders. 
Kreitler et al. 1994 Ability to face problems realistically: derived from coding of structured interview and meanings tasks 619 women from factories, kibbutzim, banks, cities, and university (mean age, 40.67 yr) Women who screened had more readiness to face problems realistically. 
Powell 1994 Review article Review article Denial causes symptomatic women to delay breast cancer screenings. 
Styra et al. 1993 Denial: unpublished problem-solving inventory, structured interview format; no psychometrics 100 women (mean age, 40.7 yr) Symptomatic women who did not identify their lump as a concern used denial and avoidance as coping mechanisms. 
Author(s)YearOperationalization of emotion regulationSample characteristicsMajor findings/conclusion regarding emotion regulation
Caplan et al. 1996 Denial: undermining the importance and urgency of the problem; the concept includes lack of concern, feeling that it would go away, misdiagnosing oneself with a less severe disease, and uncertainty about actual symptoms 367 breast cancer patients (161 Whites, 206 Blacks; 48% between 20 and 49 yr) Denial causes symptomatic women to delay breast cancer screenings. 
Chaitchik and Kreitler 1991 Repression: a combination of social desirability and anxiety scales; scales not described and no psychometrics given 466 women (210 nonattenders, 210 self-referred screeners, 46 in experimental/induced sample) Attenders scored higher on repressiveness than nonattenders. 
Consedine et al. 2004 Repression: the Index of Self-Regulation (Mendolia, 2002) combines the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale (α = .73) and the Anxiety subscale of the STPI (α = .75) to generate a continuous measure of repression 1364 women from six ethnic groups (mean age, 53.9 yr) Greater repression associated with greater self-reported mammography and breast self-examination even where background characteristics were controlled. 
Kreitler et al. 1990 Repression: a combination of social desirability and anxiety scales; scales not described and no psychometrics given 420 women (control: mean age, 40.5 yr; experimental: mean age, 40.9 yr; 63–65.7% Israeli, 20.5–22.4% Middle Eastern or North African, rest unknown) Attenders scored higher on repressiveness than nonattenders. 
Kreitler et al. 1994 Ability to face problems realistically: derived from coding of structured interview and meanings tasks 619 women from factories, kibbutzim, banks, cities, and university (mean age, 40.67 yr) Women who screened had more readiness to face problems realistically. 
Powell 1994 Review article Review article Denial causes symptomatic women to delay breast cancer screenings. 
Styra et al. 1993 Denial: unpublished problem-solving inventory, structured interview format; no psychometrics 100 women (mean age, 40.7 yr) Symptomatic women who did not identify their lump as a concern used denial and avoidance as coping mechanisms. 
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