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Table 2.

HR (95% CI) for exocrine pancreatic cancer according to energy-adjusted baseline daily intake of flavonoids in the ATBC Study (n = 27,111), 1985-2004

FlavonoidQuintiles of energy-adjusted intake (1 = lowest, 5 = highest)
Ptrend
1*2
3
4
5
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Total flavonoids       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤6.45 >6.45-9.14 >9.14-12.82 >12.82-22.88 >22.88  
    No. cases/person-years 71/72,244 62/72,910 51/74,825 59/75,823 63/75,860  
    Multivariate adjusted 0.88 (0.62-1.24) 0.72 (0.50-1.03) 0.84 (0.59-1.19) 0.90 (0.64-1.28) 0.98 
Flavonols       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤5.24 >5.24-6.98 >6.98-9.09 >9.09-13.00 >13.00  
    No. cases/person-years 71/71,585 67/72,895 48/74,710 57/76,184 63/76,289  
    Multivariate adjusted 0.96 (0.68-1.34) 0.68 (0.47-0.98) 0.81 (0.57-1.16) 0.91 (0.64-1.30) 0.77 
Kaempferol       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.20 >0.20-0.34 >0.34-0.61 >0.61-1.94 >1.94  
    No. cases/person-years 65/72,853 61/72,602 64/74,865 55/75,721 61/75,622  
    Multivariate adjusted 0.93 (0.66-1.33) 0.94 (0.66-1.34) 0.82 (0.57-1.19) 0.93 (0.65-1.33) 0.84 
Myricetin       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.35 >0.35-0.54 >0.54-0.80 >0.80-1.28 >1.28  
    No. cases/person-years 63/72,627 70/72,765 51/74,653 59/75,617 63/76,001  
    Multivariate adjusted 1.10 (0.78-1.55) 0.81 (0.56-1.17) 0.93 (0.65-1.34) 1.04 (0.73-1.49) 0.88 
Quercetin       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤4.44 >4.44-5.86 >5.86-7.44 >7.44-9.87 >9.87  
    No. cases/person-years 66/71,639 65/72,656 51/74,874 57/75,771 67/76,723  
    Multivariate adjusted 1.02 (0.72-1.43) 0.78 (0.54-1.14) 0.89 (0.62-1.28) 1.07 (0.75-1.53) 0.69 
Flavan-3-ols       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.90 >0.90-1.82 >1.82-3.51 >3.51-9.75 >9.75  
    No. cases/person-years 66/73,718 64/72,600 64/74,296 51/75,403 61/75,646  
    Multivariate adjusted 0.96 (0.68-1.35) 0.94 (0.66-1.34) 0.76 (0.52-1.10) 0.92 (0.64-1.31) 0.72 
Catechin       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.35 >0.35-0.68 >0.68-1.30 >1.30-3.65 >3.65  
    No. cases/person-years 61/73,571 72/73,026 60/74,623 54/74,799 59/75,644  
    Multivariate adjusted 1.15 (0.81-1.62) 0.94 (0.65-1.34) 0.86 (0.59-1.25) 0.95 (0.66-1.36) 0.56 
Epicatechin       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.49 >0.49-1.10 >1.10-2.24 >2.24-6.19 >6.19  
    No. cases/person-years 68/73,826 62/72,199 59/74,674 56/75,377 61/75,587  
    Multivariate adjusted 0.91 (0.65-1.29) 0.85 (0.60-1.21) 0.82 (0.57-1.18) 0.90 (0.63-1.28) 0.83 
Flavones       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.035 >0.035-0.056 >0.056-0.087 >0.087-0.197 >0.197  
    No. cases/person-years 63/73,854 58/73,367 69/73,330 54/74,959 62/76,152  
    Multivariate adjusted 0.91 (0.64-1.30) 1.08 (0.76-1.52) 0.82 (0.57-1.18) 0.99 (0.70-1.42) 0.99 
Apigenin       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.016 >0.016-0.029 >0.029-0.046 >0.046-0.121 >0.121  
    No. cases/person-years 60/75,641 68/74,379 53/73,477 61/72,451 64/75,714  
    Multivariate adjusted 1.11 (0.78-1.57) 0.84 (0.58-1.21) 0.96 (0.67-1.37) 1.06 (0.74-1.51) 0.68 
Luteolin       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.012 >0.012-0.020 >0.020-0.036 >0.036-0.067 >0.067  
    No. cases/person-years 61/72,760 70/71,750 57/73,794 52/75,936 66/77,422  
    Multivariate adjusted 1.14 (0.81-1.61) 0.93 (0.64-1.33) 0.86 (0.59-1.25) 1.09 (0.77-1.56) 0.82 
FlavonoidQuintiles of energy-adjusted intake (1 = lowest, 5 = highest)
Ptrend
1*2
3
4
5
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Total flavonoids       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤6.45 >6.45-9.14 >9.14-12.82 >12.82-22.88 >22.88  
    No. cases/person-years 71/72,244 62/72,910 51/74,825 59/75,823 63/75,860  
    Multivariate adjusted 0.88 (0.62-1.24) 0.72 (0.50-1.03) 0.84 (0.59-1.19) 0.90 (0.64-1.28) 0.98 
Flavonols       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤5.24 >5.24-6.98 >6.98-9.09 >9.09-13.00 >13.00  
    No. cases/person-years 71/71,585 67/72,895 48/74,710 57/76,184 63/76,289  
    Multivariate adjusted 0.96 (0.68-1.34) 0.68 (0.47-0.98) 0.81 (0.57-1.16) 0.91 (0.64-1.30) 0.77 
Kaempferol       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.20 >0.20-0.34 >0.34-0.61 >0.61-1.94 >1.94  
    No. cases/person-years 65/72,853 61/72,602 64/74,865 55/75,721 61/75,622  
    Multivariate adjusted 0.93 (0.66-1.33) 0.94 (0.66-1.34) 0.82 (0.57-1.19) 0.93 (0.65-1.33) 0.84 
Myricetin       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.35 >0.35-0.54 >0.54-0.80 >0.80-1.28 >1.28  
    No. cases/person-years 63/72,627 70/72,765 51/74,653 59/75,617 63/76,001  
    Multivariate adjusted 1.10 (0.78-1.55) 0.81 (0.56-1.17) 0.93 (0.65-1.34) 1.04 (0.73-1.49) 0.88 
Quercetin       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤4.44 >4.44-5.86 >5.86-7.44 >7.44-9.87 >9.87  
    No. cases/person-years 66/71,639 65/72,656 51/74,874 57/75,771 67/76,723  
    Multivariate adjusted 1.02 (0.72-1.43) 0.78 (0.54-1.14) 0.89 (0.62-1.28) 1.07 (0.75-1.53) 0.69 
Flavan-3-ols       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.90 >0.90-1.82 >1.82-3.51 >3.51-9.75 >9.75  
    No. cases/person-years 66/73,718 64/72,600 64/74,296 51/75,403 61/75,646  
    Multivariate adjusted 0.96 (0.68-1.35) 0.94 (0.66-1.34) 0.76 (0.52-1.10) 0.92 (0.64-1.31) 0.72 
Catechin       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.35 >0.35-0.68 >0.68-1.30 >1.30-3.65 >3.65  
    No. cases/person-years 61/73,571 72/73,026 60/74,623 54/74,799 59/75,644  
    Multivariate adjusted 1.15 (0.81-1.62) 0.94 (0.65-1.34) 0.86 (0.59-1.25) 0.95 (0.66-1.36) 0.56 
Epicatechin       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.49 >0.49-1.10 >1.10-2.24 >2.24-6.19 >6.19  
    No. cases/person-years 68/73,826 62/72,199 59/74,674 56/75,377 61/75,587  
    Multivariate adjusted 0.91 (0.65-1.29) 0.85 (0.60-1.21) 0.82 (0.57-1.18) 0.90 (0.63-1.28) 0.83 
Flavones       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.035 >0.035-0.056 >0.056-0.087 >0.087-0.197 >0.197  
    No. cases/person-years 63/73,854 58/73,367 69/73,330 54/74,959 62/76,152  
    Multivariate adjusted 0.91 (0.64-1.30) 1.08 (0.76-1.52) 0.82 (0.57-1.18) 0.99 (0.70-1.42) 0.99 
Apigenin       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.016 >0.016-0.029 >0.029-0.046 >0.046-0.121 >0.121  
    No. cases/person-years 60/75,641 68/74,379 53/73,477 61/72,451 64/75,714  
    Multivariate adjusted 1.11 (0.78-1.57) 0.84 (0.58-1.21) 0.96 (0.67-1.37) 1.06 (0.74-1.51) 0.68 
Luteolin       
    Range of intake (mg) ≤0.012 >0.012-0.020 >0.020-0.036 >0.036-0.067 >0.067  
    No. cases/person-years 61/72,760 70/71,750 57/73,794 52/75,936 66/77,422  
    Multivariate adjusted 1.14 (0.81-1.61) 0.93 (0.64-1.33) 0.86 (0.59-1.25) 1.09 (0.77-1.56) 0.82 
*

Reference category.

Multivariate-adjusted HRs are adjusted for age at randomization, years of smoking, total number of cigarettes per day, self-reported history of diabetes mellitus, and energy-adjusted saturated fat intake.

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