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Table 3

Mean supplemental fiber intake and total fiber intake during the WBF trial, by baseline characteristics (n = 1208)

Variablen                  aSupplemental fiber intake (g/day) Mean ± SDTotal fiber intake (g/day) Mean ± SD
Age at randomization (yr)    
 40.3–61.1 302 5.7 ± 4.6 23.1 ± 9.1 
 61.2–68.1 302 6.3 ± 4.7 24.2 ± 9.7 
 68.2–73.1 302 5.8 ± 4.7 25.1 ± 9.4 
 73.2–81.1 302 5.7 ± 4.6 26.2 ± 9.2b 
Gender    
 Female 393 5.6 ± 4.6 23.4 ± 9.3 
 Male 815 6.0 ± 4.7 25.3 ± 9.4c 
Race    
 White, non-Hispanic 1157 5.9 ± 4.6 24.5 ± 9.3 
 Other 51 6.0 ± 4.8 27.2 ± 11.0d 
Marital status    
 Married or cohabitating 1005 5.9 ± 4.6 24.8 ± 9.4 
 Single 202 5.6 ± 4.6 24.0 ± 9.5 
Education    
 Some or all high school 548 5.7 ± 4.6 24.3 ± 9.8 
 At least 1 year of college 658 6.0 ± 4.7 24.9 ± 9.1 
History of colorectal cancer in one parent or sibling    
 Yes 209 6.0 ± 4.6 25.2 ± 9.4 
 No 999 5.8 ± 4.6 24.5 ± 9.4 
History of cancer other than colorectal cancer at least 5 years prior to study entry    
 Yes 72 6.3 ± 4.8 24.0 ± 7.9 
 No 773 5.9 ± 4.6 25.0 ± 9.5 
Years on Study    
 ≤1.0 43 2.7 ± 2.5 20.9 ± 9.0 
 1.1–2.0 104 3.4 ± 3.2 22.9 ± 8.9 
 2.1–3.0 239 6.0 ± 4.5 24.7 ± 9.8 
 >3.0 822 6.3 ± 4.8b 25.1 ± 9.3b 
Body mass index (kg/m2   
 8.2–23.8 304 5.9 ± 4.7 25.0 ± 9.5 
 23.9–26.1 301 6.1 ± 4.7 24.5 ± 9.2 
 26.2–28.8 302 5.9 ± 4.6 24.2 ± 9.0 
 28.9–48.1 301 5.6 ± 4.6 24.8 ± 9.9 
Polyp Characteristics    
 History of adenomas prior to baseline colonoscopy    
  Yes 419 5.9 ± 4.6 25.3 ± 9.5 
  No 654 6.0 ± 4.7 24.6 ± 9.5 
 Poly Location    
  Distal only 659 5.9 ± 4.7 24.4 ± 9.2 
  Proximal only 322 5.8 ± 4.6 25.4 ± 10.4 
  At least one proximal polyp 221 5.9 ± 4.6 24.2 ± 8.7 
 Number of Polyps    
  One 693 5.8 ± 4.6 24.7 ± 9.4 
  Two 261 6.1 ± 4.8 25.1 ± 9.6 
  Three or more 251 5.7 ± 4.6 24.0 ± 9.1 
 Maximum polyp size    
  <0.5 cm 363 6.0 ± 4.7 25.2 ± 10.2 
  0.60–1.00 cm 512 5.8 ± 4.6 24.7 ± 9.1 
  >1.00 cm 333 5.9 ± 4.6 24.1 ± 8.9 
Lifestyle variables    
 Exercise    
  At least once a week 612 6.2 ± 4.7 25.7 ± 9.2 
  Never 492 5.7 ± 4.6 23.9 ± 9.7e 
 Current smoker    
  Yes 152 6.8 ± 4.5 22.2 ± 9.3 
  No 1056 5.7 ± 4.6c 25.0 ± 9.4c 
 Ever smoker    
  Yes 637 5.8 ± 4.7 24.7 ± 9.3 
  No 424 5.7 ± 4.6 25.4 ± 9.4 
 10-yr history of regular aspirin use    
  Yes 345 6.1 ± 4.7 25.6 ± 9.5 
  No 863 5.8 ± 4.6 24.3 ± 9.3d 
Dietary Variables    
 Energy (kcal/day)    
  327.9–1437.7 302 5.7 ± 4.7 18.6 ± 7.2 
  1438.2–1819.6 302 5.8 ± 4.6 23.1 ± 7.6 
  1820.8–2260.5 302 5.9 ± 4.6 25.7 ± 7.7 
 2260.5–6287.8 302 6.1 ± 4.7 31.2 ± 10.1b 
Protein (g/day)    
 14.2–54.3 302 5.9 ± 4.6 18.9 ± 7.7 
 54.4–70.0 302 5.8 ± 4.7 23.0 ± 7.4 
 70.1–87.9 302 5.7 ± 4.5 25.8 ± 8.5 
 88.0–253.2 302 6.2 ± 4.7 31.0 ± 9.6b 
Carbohydrate (g/day)    
 45.7–173.7 302 5.8 ± 4.6 17.2 ± 6.3 
 173.8–223.8 302 5.9 ± 4.7 22.4 ± 6.6 
 224.2–278.5 302 5.9 ± 4.6 26.1 ± 6.9 
 278.6–729.7 302 6.0 ± 4.7 32.9 ± 9.5b 
Fat (g/day)    
 6.7–49.2 302 5.9 ± 4.7 21.8 ± 8.9 
 49.3–67.5 302 5.9 ± 4.6 23.4 ± 8.4 
 67.6–89.9 302 5.7 ± 4.6 25.6 ± 9.3 
 90.0–321.1 302 6.1 ± 4.6 27.9 ± 9.8b 
Dietary Calcium (mg/day)    
 125.8–595.9 302 6.0 ± 4.6 19.7 ± 7.6 
 596.0–815.6 302 5.8 ± 4.8 24.3 ± 8.8 
 815.7–1042.0 302 5.7 ± 4.6 24.9 ± 8.5 
 1042.1–3364.3 302 6.0 ± 4.6 29.7 ± 9.9b 
Total calcium (mg/day)    
 125.8–666.3 302 5.9 ± 4.6 20.2 ± 7.7 
 667.0–928.7 302 5.8 ± 4.7 24.2 ± 9.1 
 929.2–1162.6 302 5.5 ± 4.5 25.4 ± 8.1 
 1162.7–3364.3 302 6.2 ± 4.7 28.8 ± 10.4b 
Alcohol (g/day)    
 0.00–0.00 444 5.7 ± 4.7 25.6 ± 10.4 
 0.43–1.6 164 5.3 ± 4.5 23.5 ± 9.6 
 1.7–10.3 298 6.2 ± 4.6 24.6 ± 8.2 
 10.4–268.7 302 6.1 ± 4.6 24.0 ± 8.8 
Dietary folate (μg/day)    
 38.6–201.5 302 5.6 ± 4.5 17.8 ± 7.0 
 201.9–265.0 302 6.2 ± 4.7 23.1 ± 7.0 
 265.1–346.3 302 5.6 ± 4.6 25.7 ± 7.5 
 346.9–818.4 302 6.1 ± 4.7 32.1 ± 9.6b 
Total folate (μg/day)    
 38.6–242.7 302 5.8 ± 4.6 19.1 ± 7.2 
 243.0–370.6 302 5.6 ± 4.6 25.6 ± 7.8 
 370.9–633.3 302 6.4 ± 4.7 26.1 ± 9.7 
 635.2–1697.9 302 5.8 ± 4.6 27.8 ± 10.3b 
Red meat (g/day)    
 0.00–26.4 302 6.0 ± 4.7 24.5 ± 9.5 
 26.5–50.0 302 5.9 ± 4.6 23.7 ± 9.4 
 50.1–84.1 302 5.4 ± 4.6 24.6 ± 9.4 
 84.3–370.1 302 6.3 ± 4.7 25.8 ± 9.3f 
Variablen                  aSupplemental fiber intake (g/day) Mean ± SDTotal fiber intake (g/day) Mean ± SD
Age at randomization (yr)    
 40.3–61.1 302 5.7 ± 4.6 23.1 ± 9.1 
 61.2–68.1 302 6.3 ± 4.7 24.2 ± 9.7 
 68.2–73.1 302 5.8 ± 4.7 25.1 ± 9.4 
 73.2–81.1 302 5.7 ± 4.6 26.2 ± 9.2b 
Gender    
 Female 393 5.6 ± 4.6 23.4 ± 9.3 
 Male 815 6.0 ± 4.7 25.3 ± 9.4c 
Race    
 White, non-Hispanic 1157 5.9 ± 4.6 24.5 ± 9.3 
 Other 51 6.0 ± 4.8 27.2 ± 11.0d 
Marital status    
 Married or cohabitating 1005 5.9 ± 4.6 24.8 ± 9.4 
 Single 202 5.6 ± 4.6 24.0 ± 9.5 
Education    
 Some or all high school 548 5.7 ± 4.6 24.3 ± 9.8 
 At least 1 year of college 658 6.0 ± 4.7 24.9 ± 9.1 
History of colorectal cancer in one parent or sibling    
 Yes 209 6.0 ± 4.6 25.2 ± 9.4 
 No 999 5.8 ± 4.6 24.5 ± 9.4 
History of cancer other than colorectal cancer at least 5 years prior to study entry    
 Yes 72 6.3 ± 4.8 24.0 ± 7.9 
 No 773 5.9 ± 4.6 25.0 ± 9.5 
Years on Study    
 ≤1.0 43 2.7 ± 2.5 20.9 ± 9.0 
 1.1–2.0 104 3.4 ± 3.2 22.9 ± 8.9 
 2.1–3.0 239 6.0 ± 4.5 24.7 ± 9.8 
 >3.0 822 6.3 ± 4.8b 25.1 ± 9.3b 
Body mass index (kg/m2   
 8.2–23.8 304 5.9 ± 4.7 25.0 ± 9.5 
 23.9–26.1 301 6.1 ± 4.7 24.5 ± 9.2 
 26.2–28.8 302 5.9 ± 4.6 24.2 ± 9.0 
 28.9–48.1 301 5.6 ± 4.6 24.8 ± 9.9 
Polyp Characteristics    
 History of adenomas prior to baseline colonoscopy    
  Yes 419 5.9 ± 4.6 25.3 ± 9.5 
  No 654 6.0 ± 4.7 24.6 ± 9.5 
 Poly Location    
  Distal only 659 5.9 ± 4.7 24.4 ± 9.2 
  Proximal only 322 5.8 ± 4.6 25.4 ± 10.4 
  At least one proximal polyp 221 5.9 ± 4.6 24.2 ± 8.7 
 Number of Polyps    
  One 693 5.8 ± 4.6 24.7 ± 9.4 
  Two 261 6.1 ± 4.8 25.1 ± 9.6 
  Three or more 251 5.7 ± 4.6 24.0 ± 9.1 
 Maximum polyp size    
  <0.5 cm 363 6.0 ± 4.7 25.2 ± 10.2 
  0.60–1.00 cm 512 5.8 ± 4.6 24.7 ± 9.1 
  >1.00 cm 333 5.9 ± 4.6 24.1 ± 8.9 
Lifestyle variables    
 Exercise    
  At least once a week 612 6.2 ± 4.7 25.7 ± 9.2 
  Never 492 5.7 ± 4.6 23.9 ± 9.7e 
 Current smoker    
  Yes 152 6.8 ± 4.5 22.2 ± 9.3 
  No 1056 5.7 ± 4.6c 25.0 ± 9.4c 
 Ever smoker    
  Yes 637 5.8 ± 4.7 24.7 ± 9.3 
  No 424 5.7 ± 4.6 25.4 ± 9.4 
 10-yr history of regular aspirin use    
  Yes 345 6.1 ± 4.7 25.6 ± 9.5 
  No 863 5.8 ± 4.6 24.3 ± 9.3d 
Dietary Variables    
 Energy (kcal/day)    
  327.9–1437.7 302 5.7 ± 4.7 18.6 ± 7.2 
  1438.2–1819.6 302 5.8 ± 4.6 23.1 ± 7.6 
  1820.8–2260.5 302 5.9 ± 4.6 25.7 ± 7.7 
 2260.5–6287.8 302 6.1 ± 4.7 31.2 ± 10.1b 
Protein (g/day)    
 14.2–54.3 302 5.9 ± 4.6 18.9 ± 7.7 
 54.4–70.0 302 5.8 ± 4.7 23.0 ± 7.4 
 70.1–87.9 302 5.7 ± 4.5 25.8 ± 8.5 
 88.0–253.2 302 6.2 ± 4.7 31.0 ± 9.6b 
Carbohydrate (g/day)    
 45.7–173.7 302 5.8 ± 4.6 17.2 ± 6.3 
 173.8–223.8 302 5.9 ± 4.7 22.4 ± 6.6 
 224.2–278.5 302 5.9 ± 4.6 26.1 ± 6.9 
 278.6–729.7 302 6.0 ± 4.7 32.9 ± 9.5b 
Fat (g/day)    
 6.7–49.2 302 5.9 ± 4.7 21.8 ± 8.9 
 49.3–67.5 302 5.9 ± 4.6 23.4 ± 8.4 
 67.6–89.9 302 5.7 ± 4.6 25.6 ± 9.3 
 90.0–321.1 302 6.1 ± 4.6 27.9 ± 9.8b 
Dietary Calcium (mg/day)    
 125.8–595.9 302 6.0 ± 4.6 19.7 ± 7.6 
 596.0–815.6 302 5.8 ± 4.8 24.3 ± 8.8 
 815.7–1042.0 302 5.7 ± 4.6 24.9 ± 8.5 
 1042.1–3364.3 302 6.0 ± 4.6 29.7 ± 9.9b 
Total calcium (mg/day)    
 125.8–666.3 302 5.9 ± 4.6 20.2 ± 7.7 
 667.0–928.7 302 5.8 ± 4.7 24.2 ± 9.1 
 929.2–1162.6 302 5.5 ± 4.5 25.4 ± 8.1 
 1162.7–3364.3 302 6.2 ± 4.7 28.8 ± 10.4b 
Alcohol (g/day)    
 0.00–0.00 444 5.7 ± 4.7 25.6 ± 10.4 
 0.43–1.6 164 5.3 ± 4.5 23.5 ± 9.6 
 1.7–10.3 298 6.2 ± 4.6 24.6 ± 8.2 
 10.4–268.7 302 6.1 ± 4.6 24.0 ± 8.8 
Dietary folate (μg/day)    
 38.6–201.5 302 5.6 ± 4.5 17.8 ± 7.0 
 201.9–265.0 302 6.2 ± 4.7 23.1 ± 7.0 
 265.1–346.3 302 5.6 ± 4.6 25.7 ± 7.5 
 346.9–818.4 302 6.1 ± 4.7 32.1 ± 9.6b 
Total folate (μg/day)    
 38.6–242.7 302 5.8 ± 4.6 19.1 ± 7.2 
 243.0–370.6 302 5.6 ± 4.6 25.6 ± 7.8 
 370.9–633.3 302 6.4 ± 4.7 26.1 ± 9.7 
 635.2–1697.9 302 5.8 ± 4.6 27.8 ± 10.3b 
Red meat (g/day)    
 0.00–26.4 302 6.0 ± 4.7 24.5 ± 9.5 
 26.5–50.0 302 5.9 ± 4.6 23.7 ± 9.4 
 50.1–84.1 302 5.4 ± 4.6 24.6 ± 9.4 
 84.3–370.1 302 6.3 ± 4.7 25.8 ± 9.3f 
a

Numbers for each category may not add up to 1208 because of missing data for some observations.

b

P for trend, <0.001.

c

P < 0.001.

d

P < 0.05.

e

P < 0.01.

f

P for trend, <0.05.

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