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Table 1

Baseline characteristics of WBF population (1304 participants) and those with complete adherence data by having had a colonoscopy prior to or within 90 days after the last count of unused cereal boxes (1208 participants)

Variable1304 participants1208 participants
Age (yrs), mean ± SD 66.6 ± 8.8 66.6 ± 8.8 
Body mass index (kg/m2), mean ± SD 26.5 ± 4.3 26.5 ± 4.3 
 n (%) n (%) 
Group   
 Low-fiber 584 (44.8) 562 (46.5) 
 High-fiber 720 (55.2) 646 (53.5) 
Gender   
 Female 432 (33.1) 393 (32.5) 
 Male 872 (66.9) 815 (67.5) 
Race   
 White 1251 (95.9) 1157 (95.8) 
 Other 53 (4.1) 51 (4.2) 
Marital Status   
 Married or cohabitating 1088 (83.4) 1005 (83.2) 
 Single 215 (16.5) 202 (16.7) 
Education   
 Some or all high-school 592 (45.4) 548 (45.4) 
 At least 1 year college 710 (54.5) 658 (54.5) 
History of colorectal cancer in one parent or sibling   
 Yes 220 (16.9) 209 (17.3) 
 No 1084 (83.1) 999 (82.7) 
History of cancer other than colorectal cancer at least 5 years prior to study entry   
 Yes 85 (6.5) 72 (6.0) 
 No 829 (63.6) 773 (64.0) 
Years on study   
 ≤1.0 47 (3.6) 43 (3.6) 
 1.1–2.0 127 (9.7) 104 (8.6) 
 2.1–3.0 258 (19.8) 239 (19.8) 
 >3.0 872 (66.9) 822 (68.1) 
Polyp Characteristics   
 History of adenomas prior to baseline colonoscopy   
  Yes 452 (34.7) 419 (34.7) 
  No 701 (53.8) 654 (54.1) 
 Polyp Location   
  Distal only 710 (54.7) 659 (54.8) 
  Proximal only 350 (27.0) 322 (26.8) 
  Proximal and distal 238 (18.3) 221 (18.4) 
 Number of polyps   
  One 745 (57.3) 693 (57.5) 
  Two 290 (22.3) 261 (21.7) 
  Three or more 266 (20.5) 251 (20.8) 
 Maximum polyp size   
  <0.5 cm 400 (30.7) 363 (30.1) 
  0.60–1.00 cm 546 (41.9) 512 (42.4) 
  >1.00 cm 358 (27.5) 333 (27.6) 
Lifestyle Variables   
 Exercise   
  At least once a week 636 (55.4) 612 (55.4) 
  Never 512 (44.6) 492 (44.6) 
 Current smoker   
  Yes 178 (13.7) 152 (12.6) 
  No 1126 (86.4) 1056 (87.4) 
 Ever smoker   
  Yes 683 (52.4) 637 (52.7) 
  No 449 (34.4) 424 (35.1) 
 10-yr history of regular aspirin use   
 Yes 368 (28.2) 345 (28.6) 
 No 936 (71.8) 863 (71.4) 
Dietary variables, mean ± SD   
 Energy (kcal/day) 1909.3 ± 666.0 1903.6 ± 663.7 
 Protein (g/day) 73.4 ± 26.2 73.4 ± 26.3 
 Carbohydrate (g/day) 233.8 ± 87.4 233.5 ± 86.6 
 Fat (g/day) 72.9 ± 33.3 72.5 ± 33.3 
 Dietary fiber (g/day) 18.7 ± 8.2 18.8 ± 8.1 
 Dietary calcium (mg/day) 852.7 ± 377.7 852.7 ± 379.0 
 Total calcium (mg/day) 975.3 ± 441.8 977.2 ± 444.2 
Alcohol (g/day) 7.5 ± 15.3 7.4 ± 14.8 
Dietary folate (μg/day) 283.3 ± 120.5 284.4 ± 120.6 
Total folate (μg/day) 441.4 ± 253.1 443.4 ± 249.9 
Red meat (g/day) 62.5 ± 48.9 62.4 ± 49.4 
Variable1304 participants1208 participants
Age (yrs), mean ± SD 66.6 ± 8.8 66.6 ± 8.8 
Body mass index (kg/m2), mean ± SD 26.5 ± 4.3 26.5 ± 4.3 
 n (%) n (%) 
Group   
 Low-fiber 584 (44.8) 562 (46.5) 
 High-fiber 720 (55.2) 646 (53.5) 
Gender   
 Female 432 (33.1) 393 (32.5) 
 Male 872 (66.9) 815 (67.5) 
Race   
 White 1251 (95.9) 1157 (95.8) 
 Other 53 (4.1) 51 (4.2) 
Marital Status   
 Married or cohabitating 1088 (83.4) 1005 (83.2) 
 Single 215 (16.5) 202 (16.7) 
Education   
 Some or all high-school 592 (45.4) 548 (45.4) 
 At least 1 year college 710 (54.5) 658 (54.5) 
History of colorectal cancer in one parent or sibling   
 Yes 220 (16.9) 209 (17.3) 
 No 1084 (83.1) 999 (82.7) 
History of cancer other than colorectal cancer at least 5 years prior to study entry   
 Yes 85 (6.5) 72 (6.0) 
 No 829 (63.6) 773 (64.0) 
Years on study   
 ≤1.0 47 (3.6) 43 (3.6) 
 1.1–2.0 127 (9.7) 104 (8.6) 
 2.1–3.0 258 (19.8) 239 (19.8) 
 >3.0 872 (66.9) 822 (68.1) 
Polyp Characteristics   
 History of adenomas prior to baseline colonoscopy   
  Yes 452 (34.7) 419 (34.7) 
  No 701 (53.8) 654 (54.1) 
 Polyp Location   
  Distal only 710 (54.7) 659 (54.8) 
  Proximal only 350 (27.0) 322 (26.8) 
  Proximal and distal 238 (18.3) 221 (18.4) 
 Number of polyps   
  One 745 (57.3) 693 (57.5) 
  Two 290 (22.3) 261 (21.7) 
  Three or more 266 (20.5) 251 (20.8) 
 Maximum polyp size   
  <0.5 cm 400 (30.7) 363 (30.1) 
  0.60–1.00 cm 546 (41.9) 512 (42.4) 
  >1.00 cm 358 (27.5) 333 (27.6) 
Lifestyle Variables   
 Exercise   
  At least once a week 636 (55.4) 612 (55.4) 
  Never 512 (44.6) 492 (44.6) 
 Current smoker   
  Yes 178 (13.7) 152 (12.6) 
  No 1126 (86.4) 1056 (87.4) 
 Ever smoker   
  Yes 683 (52.4) 637 (52.7) 
  No 449 (34.4) 424 (35.1) 
 10-yr history of regular aspirin use   
 Yes 368 (28.2) 345 (28.6) 
 No 936 (71.8) 863 (71.4) 
Dietary variables, mean ± SD   
 Energy (kcal/day) 1909.3 ± 666.0 1903.6 ± 663.7 
 Protein (g/day) 73.4 ± 26.2 73.4 ± 26.3 
 Carbohydrate (g/day) 233.8 ± 87.4 233.5 ± 86.6 
 Fat (g/day) 72.9 ± 33.3 72.5 ± 33.3 
 Dietary fiber (g/day) 18.7 ± 8.2 18.8 ± 8.1 
 Dietary calcium (mg/day) 852.7 ± 377.7 852.7 ± 379.0 
 Total calcium (mg/day) 975.3 ± 441.8 977.2 ± 444.2 
Alcohol (g/day) 7.5 ± 15.3 7.4 ± 14.8 
Dietary folate (μg/day) 283.3 ± 120.5 284.4 ± 120.6 
Total folate (μg/day) 441.4 ± 253.1 443.4 ± 249.9 
Red meat (g/day) 62.5 ± 48.9 62.4 ± 49.4 
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