Skip to Main Content
Table 1

List of studies used in the review and meta-analysis and their selected characteristics

Author, year publishedCountryAge at entry; sexYears of follow-up; % completed follow-upStart of follow-upNo. of cases; No. in cohortDietary assessment;a QuantilesbAdjustments
Bjelke et al., 1980 (29) Norway 45–74; M 5; not stated 1968 41;c 12,166 50-item FFQ; Q3 Age 
Gaard et al., 1996 (21) Norway 20–54; M & F Mean 11.4; 83 1977 143;c 55,535 80-item FFQ;d Q4 Age; attained age 
Giovannucci et al., 1994 (22) USA 40–75; M 6; 95 1986 205;c 47,949 131-item FFQ;d Q5 Age; energy intake 
Goldbohm et al., 1994 (23) Netherlands 55–69; M & F 3.3; 95 1986 293;c 3,123 150-item FFQ;d Q4 & Q5 Age; total calories 
Hirayama et al., 1990 (28) Japan >40; M & F 17; 80 1965 725; 265,113 9-item FFQ (7 food groups & 2 beverages); Q4 Age 
Hsing et al., 1998 (27) USA ≥35; M 20; 77 1966 145; 13,606 35-item FFQ; Q5 Total calories; age; smoking; alcohol 
Kato et al., 1997 (20) USA 34–65; F Mean 7.1; (97 in New York State recruits) 1985–1991 100;c 14,727 70-item FFQ; Q4 Total calories; age; place of enrollment; education 
Knekt et al., 1999 (17) Finland 15–99; M & F 24; not stated 1967 73;c 9,990 1 year dietary history interview; Q4 Age; sex; municipality; smoking; energy intake 
Phillips et al., 1985 (26) USA >30; M & F 21; not stated 1960 172; 25,439 21-item FFQ; Q3 Age; sex 
Sellers et al., 1998 (18) USA 55–69; F 9; 76 1986 241;c 26,937 127-item FFQ;d Q3 Age; energy intake 
Singh et al., 1998 (19) USA 25–104; M & F 6; 97 1977 179;c 32,051 55-item FFQ;d Q3 Age; body mass index; sex; smoking; physical activity; family history; alcohol; aspirin use 
Thun et al., 1992 (24)e USA 30–110; M & F 6; 98 1982 1,150; 5,746 42-item FFQ (32 food items & 10 beverages); Q5 None 
Willett et al., 1990 (25) USA 34–59; F 6; 96 1980 150;c 88,751 61-item FFQ;d Q5 Age; energy intake 
Author, year publishedCountryAge at entry; sexYears of follow-up; % completed follow-upStart of follow-upNo. of cases; No. in cohortDietary assessment;a QuantilesbAdjustments
Bjelke et al., 1980 (29) Norway 45–74; M 5; not stated 1968 41;c 12,166 50-item FFQ; Q3 Age 
Gaard et al., 1996 (21) Norway 20–54; M & F Mean 11.4; 83 1977 143;c 55,535 80-item FFQ;d Q4 Age; attained age 
Giovannucci et al., 1994 (22) USA 40–75; M 6; 95 1986 205;c 47,949 131-item FFQ;d Q5 Age; energy intake 
Goldbohm et al., 1994 (23) Netherlands 55–69; M & F 3.3; 95 1986 293;c 3,123 150-item FFQ;d Q4 & Q5 Age; total calories 
Hirayama et al., 1990 (28) Japan >40; M & F 17; 80 1965 725; 265,113 9-item FFQ (7 food groups & 2 beverages); Q4 Age 
Hsing et al., 1998 (27) USA ≥35; M 20; 77 1966 145; 13,606 35-item FFQ; Q5 Total calories; age; smoking; alcohol 
Kato et al., 1997 (20) USA 34–65; F Mean 7.1; (97 in New York State recruits) 1985–1991 100;c 14,727 70-item FFQ; Q4 Total calories; age; place of enrollment; education 
Knekt et al., 1999 (17) Finland 15–99; M & F 24; not stated 1967 73;c 9,990 1 year dietary history interview; Q4 Age; sex; municipality; smoking; energy intake 
Phillips et al., 1985 (26) USA >30; M & F 21; not stated 1960 172; 25,439 21-item FFQ; Q3 Age; sex 
Sellers et al., 1998 (18) USA 55–69; F 9; 76 1986 241;c 26,937 127-item FFQ;d Q3 Age; energy intake 
Singh et al., 1998 (19) USA 25–104; M & F 6; 97 1977 179;c 32,051 55-item FFQ;d Q3 Age; body mass index; sex; smoking; physical activity; family history; alcohol; aspirin use 
Thun et al., 1992 (24)e USA 30–110; M & F 6; 98 1982 1,150; 5,746 42-item FFQ (32 food items & 10 beverages); Q5 None 
Willett et al., 1990 (25) USA 34–59; F 6; 96 1980 150;c 88,751 61-item FFQ;d Q5 Age; energy intake 
a

Food Frequency Questionnaire.

b

Quantiles. Q3 = tertiles; Q4 = quartiles; Q5 = quintiles.

c

Incident cases.

d

Undertook validation of dietary assessment.

e

Nested case control.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal