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Table 1

Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

First author, yrCountrySelection/characteristics of cases and controls (age range [mean])Racial descentEligible subjectsa
Prostate cancerControlsProstate cancerControls
Lunn, 1999 USA Prostatectomy-documented cancer [63] Men presenting with BPH or impotence, without history of cancer other than nonmelanoma skin cancer [64] European 96 159 
    African 12 
Wadelius, 1999 Sweden Not clarified. Family history in 12% (51–79 [71]) Randomly selected from the county population register, no screening for prostate cancer (50–79 [71]) European 178 160 
Gsur, 2000 Austria Histologically documented cancer by TRUS-guided biopsy after a suspicious finding on DRE, elevated serum PSA, or both [66] Patients with BPH symptoms. Prostate cancer was excluded by negative DRE and not elevated serum PSA (50.5%), by TRUS-guided biopsy (16.5%), or by transurethral resection of the prostate (33%) [67] European 63 126 
Habuchi, 2000 Japan Histologically documented cancer by transrectal needle biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate [72] BPH on DRE without elevated serum PSA or negative transrectal biopsy (n = 202); nonurological admissions without BPH on DRE and not elevated serum PSA or negative transrectal biopsy (n = 131) [72] Asian 252 333 
Haiman, 2001 USA Not clarified (40–84) Physicians participating in Physicians’ Health Study Cohort with negative clinical history for cancer who returned blood samples (40–84) European 600 804 
Kittles, 2001 USA Not clarified [66] Not elevated serum PSA and normal DRE [57] African 71 111 
Yamada, 2001 Japan Histologically documented cancer by TRUS-guided biopsy or by radical prostatectomy [72] No cancer seen in retropubic prostatectomy (n = 136) or not elevated serum PSA or a negative biopsy (n = 74) [72] Asian 105 210 
Chang, 2001 USA Not clarified [59] Normal DRE and not elevated serum PSA [58] European 225 182 
Latil, 2001 France Histologically documented cancer. Excluded patients with family history (46–98 [71]) Negative DRE and not elevated serum PSA for at least 7 years (51–92 [72]) European 226 156 
Stanford, 2002 USA Histologically documented cancer. First-degree family history in 19% (40–64 [58]) Random digit telephone dialing. 59% have had negative DRE screening, and 35% have had negative DRE and PSA screening. BPH in 18% (40–64 [58]) European 560 523 
    African 30 15 
First author, yrCountrySelection/characteristics of cases and controls (age range [mean])Racial descentEligible subjectsa
Prostate cancerControlsProstate cancerControls
Lunn, 1999 USA Prostatectomy-documented cancer [63] Men presenting with BPH or impotence, without history of cancer other than nonmelanoma skin cancer [64] European 96 159 
    African 12 
Wadelius, 1999 Sweden Not clarified. Family history in 12% (51–79 [71]) Randomly selected from the county population register, no screening for prostate cancer (50–79 [71]) European 178 160 
Gsur, 2000 Austria Histologically documented cancer by TRUS-guided biopsy after a suspicious finding on DRE, elevated serum PSA, or both [66] Patients with BPH symptoms. Prostate cancer was excluded by negative DRE and not elevated serum PSA (50.5%), by TRUS-guided biopsy (16.5%), or by transurethral resection of the prostate (33%) [67] European 63 126 
Habuchi, 2000 Japan Histologically documented cancer by transrectal needle biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate [72] BPH on DRE without elevated serum PSA or negative transrectal biopsy (n = 202); nonurological admissions without BPH on DRE and not elevated serum PSA or negative transrectal biopsy (n = 131) [72] Asian 252 333 
Haiman, 2001 USA Not clarified (40–84) Physicians participating in Physicians’ Health Study Cohort with negative clinical history for cancer who returned blood samples (40–84) European 600 804 
Kittles, 2001 USA Not clarified [66] Not elevated serum PSA and normal DRE [57] African 71 111 
Yamada, 2001 Japan Histologically documented cancer by TRUS-guided biopsy or by radical prostatectomy [72] No cancer seen in retropubic prostatectomy (n = 136) or not elevated serum PSA or a negative biopsy (n = 74) [72] Asian 105 210 
Chang, 2001 USA Not clarified [59] Normal DRE and not elevated serum PSA [58] European 225 182 
Latil, 2001 France Histologically documented cancer. Excluded patients with family history (46–98 [71]) Negative DRE and not elevated serum PSA for at least 7 years (51–92 [72]) European 226 156 
Stanford, 2002 USA Histologically documented cancer. First-degree family history in 19% (40–64 [58]) Random digit telephone dialing. 59% have had negative DRE screening, and 35% have had negative DRE and PSA screening. BPH in 18% (40–64 [58]) European 560 523 
    African 30 15 
a

All eligible subjects were genotyped with the exception of 10 cancer patients and 22 controls in Haiman et al (9), and 4 cancer patients and 10 controls in Yamada et al (8).

b

TRUS, transrectal ultrasound; DRE, digital rectal examination; PSA, prostate-specific antigen.

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