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Table 3

ORs and 95% CIs for prostate cancer associated with cigarette smoking, stratified by disease aggressiveness

Smoking exposureControls, nCases, n Less aggressiveCases, n More aggressiveORa (95% CI) Less aggressiveORa (95% CI) More aggressive
Smoking status      
 Nonsmoker 266 197 84 Referent Referent 
 Former smoker 322 220 129 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 
 Current smoker 115 81 42 1.4 (1.0–2.0) 1.5 (1.0–2.4) 
Smoking duration (yr)      
 Nonsmoker 266 197 84 Referent Referent 
 <10 68 49 24 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 1.1 (0.6–1.8) 
 10–19 100 76 37 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 1.2 (0.7–1.9) 
 20–29 98 52 37 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 
 30–39 103 70 41 1.2 (0.8–1.7) 1.5 (1.0–2.4) 
 ≥40 68 54 32 1.3 (0.8–2.0) 1.8 (1.1–3.1) 
Cigarettes/day      
 Nonsmokers 266 197 84 Referent Referent 
 1–10 75 53 38 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 1.6 (1.0–2.5) 
 11–20 230 144 72 0.9 (0.7–1.3) 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 
 21–30 75 48 26 1.0 (0.7–1.6) 1.3 (0.8–2.2) 
 31–40 37 38 24 1.6 (0.9–2.7) 2.3 (1.3–4.1) 
 >40 20 18 11 1.3 (0.6–2.6) 1.9 (0.8–4.2) 
Pack-years      
 Nonsmoker 266 197 84 Referent Referent 
 ≤10 93 82 40 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 1.3 (0.8–2.0) 
 11–20 92 42 23 0.7 (0.4–1.1) 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 
 21–30 76 39 33 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 1.5 (0.9–2.4) 
 31–40 73 52 21 1.2 (0.8–1.8) 1.1 (0.6–1.9) 
 >40 103 86 54 1.4 (1.0–2.0) 2.0 (1.3–3.1) 
Years since cessation      
 Nonsmoker 266 197 84 Referent Referent 
 Current smoker 115 81 42 1.4 (1.0–2.0) 1.5 (1.0–2.4) 
 <10 73 45 35 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 1.7 (1.0–2.7) 
 10–19 94 61 37 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 1.4 (0.9–2.2) 
 20–29 86 59 36 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 
 ≥30 69 55 21 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.8 (0.5–1.4) 
Age first smoked      
 Nonsmoker 266 197 84 Referent Referent 
 ≤15 years 128 96 70 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.8 (1.2–2.7) 
 16–17 years 104 76 38 1.2 (0.8–1.7) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 
 18–19 years 105 74 33 1.1 (0.7–1.6) 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 
 ≥20 years 100 55 30 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 
Smoking exposureControls, nCases, n Less aggressiveCases, n More aggressiveORa (95% CI) Less aggressiveORa (95% CI) More aggressive
Smoking status      
 Nonsmoker 266 197 84 Referent Referent 
 Former smoker 322 220 129 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 
 Current smoker 115 81 42 1.4 (1.0–2.0) 1.5 (1.0–2.4) 
Smoking duration (yr)      
 Nonsmoker 266 197 84 Referent Referent 
 <10 68 49 24 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 1.1 (0.6–1.8) 
 10–19 100 76 37 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 1.2 (0.7–1.9) 
 20–29 98 52 37 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 
 30–39 103 70 41 1.2 (0.8–1.7) 1.5 (1.0–2.4) 
 ≥40 68 54 32 1.3 (0.8–2.0) 1.8 (1.1–3.1) 
Cigarettes/day      
 Nonsmokers 266 197 84 Referent Referent 
 1–10 75 53 38 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 1.6 (1.0–2.5) 
 11–20 230 144 72 0.9 (0.7–1.3) 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 
 21–30 75 48 26 1.0 (0.7–1.6) 1.3 (0.8–2.2) 
 31–40 37 38 24 1.6 (0.9–2.7) 2.3 (1.3–4.1) 
 >40 20 18 11 1.3 (0.6–2.6) 1.9 (0.8–4.2) 
Pack-years      
 Nonsmoker 266 197 84 Referent Referent 
 ≤10 93 82 40 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 1.3 (0.8–2.0) 
 11–20 92 42 23 0.7 (0.4–1.1) 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 
 21–30 76 39 33 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 1.5 (0.9–2.4) 
 31–40 73 52 21 1.2 (0.8–1.8) 1.1 (0.6–1.9) 
 >40 103 86 54 1.4 (1.0–2.0) 2.0 (1.3–3.1) 
Years since cessation      
 Nonsmoker 266 197 84 Referent Referent 
 Current smoker 115 81 42 1.4 (1.0–2.0) 1.5 (1.0–2.4) 
 <10 73 45 35 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 1.7 (1.0–2.7) 
 10–19 94 61 37 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 1.4 (0.9–2.2) 
 20–29 86 59 36 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 
 ≥30 69 55 21 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.8 (0.5–1.4) 
Age first smoked      
 Nonsmoker 266 197 84 Referent Referent 
 ≤15 years 128 96 70 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.8 (1.2–2.7) 
 16–17 years 104 76 38 1.2 (0.8–1.7) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 
 18–19 years 105 74 33 1.1 (0.7–1.6) 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 
 ≥20 years 100 55 30 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 
a

ORs adjusted for age, race, family history of prostate cancer, history of PSA testing >1 year before reference date, and history of BPH.

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