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Table 2

Relative risk of leukemia among Iowa women according to level of intake of various food groups, adjusted for age, energy intake, blood transfusion status, education, BMI, and smoking status IWHS,a 1986 to 1999

Dietary factorTertile of intakeP for trendb
123
Protein (g/day)     
 Range <66.2 66.2–89.0 >89.0  
 No. of cases 42 44 52  
 RR 1.00 1.03 1.13  
 95% CI  0.64–1.66 0.61–2.10 0.70 
% Carbohydrates (total calories)     
 Range <45.7 45.7–51.9 >51.9  
 No. of cases 52 49 37  
 RR 1.00 0.91 0.72  
 95% CI  0.61–1.36 0.46–1.11 0.14 
% Total fat (total calories)     
 Range <31.6 31.6–36.4 >36.4  
 No. of cases 43 46 49  
 RR 1.00 1.00 1.14  
 95% CI  0.65–1.54 0.75–1.74 0.53 
All meats (servings/wk)     
 Range <10.3 10.3–15.0 >15.0  
 No. of cases 45 50 43  
 RR 1.00 1.09 0.84 0.52 
 95% CI  0.71–1.68 0.50–1.41  
Red meat (servings/wk)     
 Range <4.0 4.0–6.5 >6.5  
 No. of cases 37 48 53  
 RR 1.00 1.33 1.14 0.62 
 95% CI  0.85–2.09 0.71–1.86  
Processed meat (servings/wk)     
 Range <1.0 1.0–1.5 >1.5  
 No. of cases 54 32 52  
 RR 1.00 0.63 0.80 0.28 
 95% CI  0.40–0.99 0.52–1.21  
Fish and seafood (servings/wk)     
 Range <1.0 1.0–1.5 >1.5  
 No. of cases 41 51 46  
 RR 1.00 0.88 1.00 0.98 
 95% CI  0.58–1.35 0.64–1.55  
Chicken with skin (servings/wk)     
 Range <0.5 0.5 >0.5  
 No. of cases 49 26 63  
 RR 1.00 0.82 1.23 0.28 
 95% CI  0.50–1.35 0.83–1.81  
Chicken without skin (servings/wk)     
 Range <0.5 0.5 >0.5  
 No. of cases 53 25 60  
 RR 1.00 0.77 0.86 0.45 
 95% CI  0.47–1.25 0.58–1.25  
Skim milk (servings/wk)     
 Range <3.0 3.0–7.0 >7.0  
 No. of cases 46 53 39  
 RR 1.00 0.92 1.01 0.97 
 95% CI  0.61–1.36 0.64–1.58  
Whole milk (servings/wk)c     
 Range <0.5 0.5   
 No. of cases 109 29   
 RR 1.00 0.94  0.77 
 95% CI  0.62–1.43   
All dairy products (servings/wk)     
 Range <10.5 10.5–20.0 >20.0  
 No. of cases 44 36 58  
 RR 1.00 0.75 1.01 0.91 
95% CI  0.48–1.17 0.65–1.58  
 All fruits (servings/wk)     
Range <13.1 13.1–20.9 >20.9  
 No. of cases 50 45 43  
 RR 1.00 0.94 0.77 0.25 
 95% CI  0.62–1.43 0.49–1.20  
 All vegetables (servings/wk)     
Range <18.1 18.1–28.0 >28.0  
 No. of cases 56 34 48  
 RR 1.00 0.56 0.69 0.08 
 95% CI  0.36–0.88 0.44–1.07  
 Cruciferous vegetables (servings/wk)     
Range <2.0 2.0–3.5 >3.5  
 No. of cases 41 51 46  
 RR 1.00 1.12 0.99 0.96 
 95% CI  0.74–1.71 0.64–1.54  
 Carotene-rich vegetables (servings/wk)     
Range <1.5 1.5–3.0 >3.0  
 No. of cases 37 53 48  
 RR 1.00 1.05 1.02 0.93 
 95% CI  0.68–1.62 0.65–1.62  
 Whole grains (servings/wk)     
Range <6.9 6.9–12.5 >12.5  
 No. of cases 51 41 46  
 RR 1.00 0.88 0.86 0.49 
 95% CI  0.58–1.35 0.56–1.32  
Dietary factorTertile of intakeP for trendb
123
Protein (g/day)     
 Range <66.2 66.2–89.0 >89.0  
 No. of cases 42 44 52  
 RR 1.00 1.03 1.13  
 95% CI  0.64–1.66 0.61–2.10 0.70 
% Carbohydrates (total calories)     
 Range <45.7 45.7–51.9 >51.9  
 No. of cases 52 49 37  
 RR 1.00 0.91 0.72  
 95% CI  0.61–1.36 0.46–1.11 0.14 
% Total fat (total calories)     
 Range <31.6 31.6–36.4 >36.4  
 No. of cases 43 46 49  
 RR 1.00 1.00 1.14  
 95% CI  0.65–1.54 0.75–1.74 0.53 
All meats (servings/wk)     
 Range <10.3 10.3–15.0 >15.0  
 No. of cases 45 50 43  
 RR 1.00 1.09 0.84 0.52 
 95% CI  0.71–1.68 0.50–1.41  
Red meat (servings/wk)     
 Range <4.0 4.0–6.5 >6.5  
 No. of cases 37 48 53  
 RR 1.00 1.33 1.14 0.62 
 95% CI  0.85–2.09 0.71–1.86  
Processed meat (servings/wk)     
 Range <1.0 1.0–1.5 >1.5  
 No. of cases 54 32 52  
 RR 1.00 0.63 0.80 0.28 
 95% CI  0.40–0.99 0.52–1.21  
Fish and seafood (servings/wk)     
 Range <1.0 1.0–1.5 >1.5  
 No. of cases 41 51 46  
 RR 1.00 0.88 1.00 0.98 
 95% CI  0.58–1.35 0.64–1.55  
Chicken with skin (servings/wk)     
 Range <0.5 0.5 >0.5  
 No. of cases 49 26 63  
 RR 1.00 0.82 1.23 0.28 
 95% CI  0.50–1.35 0.83–1.81  
Chicken without skin (servings/wk)     
 Range <0.5 0.5 >0.5  
 No. of cases 53 25 60  
 RR 1.00 0.77 0.86 0.45 
 95% CI  0.47–1.25 0.58–1.25  
Skim milk (servings/wk)     
 Range <3.0 3.0–7.0 >7.0  
 No. of cases 46 53 39  
 RR 1.00 0.92 1.01 0.97 
 95% CI  0.61–1.36 0.64–1.58  
Whole milk (servings/wk)c     
 Range <0.5 0.5   
 No. of cases 109 29   
 RR 1.00 0.94  0.77 
 95% CI  0.62–1.43   
All dairy products (servings/wk)     
 Range <10.5 10.5–20.0 >20.0  
 No. of cases 44 36 58  
 RR 1.00 0.75 1.01 0.91 
95% CI  0.48–1.17 0.65–1.58  
 All fruits (servings/wk)     
Range <13.1 13.1–20.9 >20.9  
 No. of cases 50 45 43  
 RR 1.00 0.94 0.77 0.25 
 95% CI  0.62–1.43 0.49–1.20  
 All vegetables (servings/wk)     
Range <18.1 18.1–28.0 >28.0  
 No. of cases 56 34 48  
 RR 1.00 0.56 0.69 0.08 
 95% CI  0.36–0.88 0.44–1.07  
 Cruciferous vegetables (servings/wk)     
Range <2.0 2.0–3.5 >3.5  
 No. of cases 41 51 46  
 RR 1.00 1.12 0.99 0.96 
 95% CI  0.74–1.71 0.64–1.54  
 Carotene-rich vegetables (servings/wk)     
Range <1.5 1.5–3.0 >3.0  
 No. of cases 37 53 48  
 RR 1.00 1.05 1.02 0.93 
 95% CI  0.68–1.62 0.65–1.62  
 Whole grains (servings/wk)     
Range <6.9 6.9–12.5 >12.5  
 No. of cases 51 41 46  
 RR 1.00 0.88 0.86 0.49 
 95% CI  0.58–1.35 0.56–1.32  
a

Subjects with missing values for any of the covariates were not included in the final regression models.

b

Tests for trend were performed by treating the categorical variable as a continuous variable in the model.

c

No consumption was >0.5 servings per week.

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