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Table 2

Consumption of selected phytoestrogen-rich foods and thyroid cancer risk among women participating in the Bay Area Thyroid Cancer Study

Food (g/day)CasesControlsORa95% CIORb95% CI
Traditional soy-based foods       
 Nonfermented       
  Tofu       
   Nonconsumers 263 213 1.0  1.0  
   Consumers       
    0.1–4.9 167 145 0.88 0.65–1.2 0.88 0.64–1.2 
    5.0–14.9 71 64 0.80 0.53–1.2 0.84 0.55–1.3 
    15.0–49.9 53 67 0.56 0.36–0.87 0.58 0.36–0.91 
    ≥50.0 36 55 0.44 0.26–0.72 0.50 0.30–0.84 
  Soy milk       
   Nonconsumers 497 449 1.0  1.0  
   Consumers       
    0.1–14.9 55 39 1.2 0.77–1.9 1.3 0.79–2.1 
    15.0–49.9 15 30 0.42 0.22–0.81 0.45 0.23–0.89 
    ≥50.0 23 26 0.77 0.43–1.4 0.81 0.44–1.5 
 Fermented       
  Miso soup       
   Nonconsumers 369 332 1.0  1.0  
   Consumers       
    0.1–4.9 111 97 1.0 0.75–1.4 1.1 0.75–1.5 
    5.0–9.9 43 49 0.75 0.48–1.2 0.76 0.48–1.2 
    ≥10.0 67 66 0.87 0.59–1.3 0.92 0.62–1.4 
Nontraditional soy-based foods       
 Soy-burgers & meat substitutes       
  Nonconsumers 500 421 1.0  1.0  
  Consumers       
   0.1–0.9 40 46 0.74 0.47–1.2 0.81 0.50–1.3 
   1.0–3.9 25 39 0.53 0.31–0.89 0.51 0.29–0.89 
   ≥4.0 25 38 0.54 0.32–0.92 0.63 0.37–1.1 
Sprouts       
 Soybean sproutsc       
  Nonconsumers 101 74 1.0  1.0  
  Consumers       
   0.1–2.9 32 28 0.85 0.47–1.5 0.83 0.45–1.6 
   3.0–4.9 28 31 0.66 0.36–1.2 0.80 0.43–1.5 
   5.0–14.9 25 22 0.83 0.43–1.6 0.92 0.47–1.8 
   ≥15.0 24 33 0.51 0.28–0.94 0.59 0.31–1.1 
 Alfalfa sprouts       
  Nonconsumers 293 245 1.0  1.0  
  Consumers       
   0.01–0.25 107 115 0.80 0.58–1.1 0.76 0.55–1.1 
   0.26–0.99 133 111 1.0 0.74–1.4 1.1 0.77–1.5 
   ≥1.0 57 73 0.64 0.43–0.94 0.62 0.41–0.93 
Foods with added soy flour       
 Doughnuts       
  Nonconsumers 108 108 1.0  1.0  
  Consumers       
   0.1–0.9 133 130 1.0 0.72–1.5 0.99 0.68–1.5 
   1.0–1.9 122 114 1.1 0.72–1.5 1.0 0.71–1.6 
   2.0–4.9 82 65 1.2 0.80–1.9 1.3 0.81–2.0 
   5.0–9.9 74 83 0.85 0.56–1.3 0.89 0.57–1.4 
   ≥10.0 71 44 1.5 0.91–2.4 1.5 0.90–2.5 
 White bread       
  Nonconsumers 123 116 1.0  1.0  
  Consumers       
   2.0–9.9 164 146 1.0 0.75–1.5 1.1 0.74–1.5 
   10.0–19.9 92 76 1.1 0.74–1.7 1.1 0.71–1.7 
   20.0–29.9 110 110 0.89 0.61–1.3 0.97 0.65–1.4 
   ≥30.0 101 96 0.93 0.63–1.4 0.92 0.61–1.4 
 Pancakes, waffles       
  Nonconsumers 102 96 1.0  1.0  
  Consumers       
   0.1–1.9 141 141 0.98 0.68–1.4 0.99 0.67–1.5 
   2.0–3.9 129 114 1.1 0.73–1.6 1.0 0.70–1.6 
   4.0–9.9 99 98 0.94 0.63–1.4 0.98 0.64–1.5 
   ≥10.0 119 95 1.1 0.75–1.7 1.0 0.68–1.6 
Foods with added soy protein       
 Canned tuna       
  Nonconsumers 114 130 1.0  1.0  
  Consumers       
   0.1–3.9 149 132 1.3 0.94–1.9 1.3 0.88–1.8 
   4.0–9.9 203 165 1.4 1.0–2.0 1.5 1.0–2.1 
   10.0–29.9 68 59 1.3 0.86–2.1 1.3 0.82–2.1 
   ≥30.0 56 58 1.1 0.69–1.7 1.1 0.70–1.8 
Food (g/day)CasesControlsORa95% CIORb95% CI
Traditional soy-based foods       
 Nonfermented       
  Tofu       
   Nonconsumers 263 213 1.0  1.0  
   Consumers       
    0.1–4.9 167 145 0.88 0.65–1.2 0.88 0.64–1.2 
    5.0–14.9 71 64 0.80 0.53–1.2 0.84 0.55–1.3 
    15.0–49.9 53 67 0.56 0.36–0.87 0.58 0.36–0.91 
    ≥50.0 36 55 0.44 0.26–0.72 0.50 0.30–0.84 
  Soy milk       
   Nonconsumers 497 449 1.0  1.0  
   Consumers       
    0.1–14.9 55 39 1.2 0.77–1.9 1.3 0.79–2.1 
    15.0–49.9 15 30 0.42 0.22–0.81 0.45 0.23–0.89 
    ≥50.0 23 26 0.77 0.43–1.4 0.81 0.44–1.5 
 Fermented       
  Miso soup       
   Nonconsumers 369 332 1.0  1.0  
   Consumers       
    0.1–4.9 111 97 1.0 0.75–1.4 1.1 0.75–1.5 
    5.0–9.9 43 49 0.75 0.48–1.2 0.76 0.48–1.2 
    ≥10.0 67 66 0.87 0.59–1.3 0.92 0.62–1.4 
Nontraditional soy-based foods       
 Soy-burgers & meat substitutes       
  Nonconsumers 500 421 1.0  1.0  
  Consumers       
   0.1–0.9 40 46 0.74 0.47–1.2 0.81 0.50–1.3 
   1.0–3.9 25 39 0.53 0.31–0.89 0.51 0.29–0.89 
   ≥4.0 25 38 0.54 0.32–0.92 0.63 0.37–1.1 
Sprouts       
 Soybean sproutsc       
  Nonconsumers 101 74 1.0  1.0  
  Consumers       
   0.1–2.9 32 28 0.85 0.47–1.5 0.83 0.45–1.6 
   3.0–4.9 28 31 0.66 0.36–1.2 0.80 0.43–1.5 
   5.0–14.9 25 22 0.83 0.43–1.6 0.92 0.47–1.8 
   ≥15.0 24 33 0.51 0.28–0.94 0.59 0.31–1.1 
 Alfalfa sprouts       
  Nonconsumers 293 245 1.0  1.0  
  Consumers       
   0.01–0.25 107 115 0.80 0.58–1.1 0.76 0.55–1.1 
   0.26–0.99 133 111 1.0 0.74–1.4 1.1 0.77–1.5 
   ≥1.0 57 73 0.64 0.43–0.94 0.62 0.41–0.93 
Foods with added soy flour       
 Doughnuts       
  Nonconsumers 108 108 1.0  1.0  
  Consumers       
   0.1–0.9 133 130 1.0 0.72–1.5 0.99 0.68–1.5 
   1.0–1.9 122 114 1.1 0.72–1.5 1.0 0.71–1.6 
   2.0–4.9 82 65 1.2 0.80–1.9 1.3 0.81–2.0 
   5.0–9.9 74 83 0.85 0.56–1.3 0.89 0.57–1.4 
   ≥10.0 71 44 1.5 0.91–2.4 1.5 0.90–2.5 
 White bread       
  Nonconsumers 123 116 1.0  1.0  
  Consumers       
   2.0–9.9 164 146 1.0 0.75–1.5 1.1 0.74–1.5 
   10.0–19.9 92 76 1.1 0.74–1.7 1.1 0.71–1.7 
   20.0–29.9 110 110 0.89 0.61–1.3 0.97 0.65–1.4 
   ≥30.0 101 96 0.93 0.63–1.4 0.92 0.61–1.4 
 Pancakes, waffles       
  Nonconsumers 102 96 1.0  1.0  
  Consumers       
   0.1–1.9 141 141 0.98 0.68–1.4 0.99 0.67–1.5 
   2.0–3.9 129 114 1.1 0.73–1.6 1.0 0.70–1.6 
   4.0–9.9 99 98 0.94 0.63–1.4 0.98 0.64–1.5 
   ≥10.0 119 95 1.1 0.75–1.7 1.0 0.68–1.6 
Foods with added soy protein       
 Canned tuna       
  Nonconsumers 114 130 1.0  1.0  
  Consumers       
   0.1–3.9 149 132 1.3 0.94–1.9 1.3 0.88–1.8 
   4.0–9.9 203 165 1.4 1.0–2.0 1.5 1.0–2.1 
   10.0–29.9 68 59 1.3 0.86–2.1 1.3 0.82–2.1 
   ≥30.0 56 58 1.1 0.69–1.7 1.1 0.70–1.8 
a

Adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and daily caloric intake.

b

Adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, daily caloric intake, goiter or thyroid nodules, radiation to the head or neck, and family history of proliferative thyroid disease.

c

Among Asian women only.

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