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Table 1

Selected characteristics of women participating in the multiethnic Bay Area Thyroid Cancer Study

CharacteristicCasesControls
Age (mean ± SD) 42.3 ± 12.7 43.2 ± 13.4 
   
Race/ethnicity (%)   
 Asian 36% 35% 
 White 49% 52% 
 Other 15% 13% 
   
Medical radiation to the head/neck (%)a 3% 1% 
   
History of goiter or thyroid nodules (%)b 21% 6% 
   
Family history of proliferative thyroid disease (%)c 14% 5% 
   
Recent pregnancy (%)d 35% 28% 
   
Menopausal status (%)   
 Premenopausal 72% 68% 
 Postmenopausal 20% 23% 
 Cannot determinee 8% 10% 
   
Daily caloric intake (kcal/day) 2,188 ± 842 2,101 ± 821 
   
% of calories from fat 32% 31% 
   
Consumption of cruciferous vegetables (g/day) 55 ± 63 58 ± 63 
   
Total carotenoid intake (mcg/day)f 13,127 ± 9,572 14,545 ± 11,414 
   
Vitamin C intake (mg/day)f 347 ± 528 388 ± 556 
   
Vitamin E intake (α-TE/day)f 52 ± 119 77 ± 157 
   
Fiber intake (g/day) 22 ± 10 23 ± 11 
CharacteristicCasesControls
Age (mean ± SD) 42.3 ± 12.7 43.2 ± 13.4 
   
Race/ethnicity (%)   
 Asian 36% 35% 
 White 49% 52% 
 Other 15% 13% 
   
Medical radiation to the head/neck (%)a 3% 1% 
   
History of goiter or thyroid nodules (%)b 21% 6% 
   
Family history of proliferative thyroid disease (%)c 14% 5% 
   
Recent pregnancy (%)d 35% 28% 
   
Menopausal status (%)   
 Premenopausal 72% 68% 
 Postmenopausal 20% 23% 
 Cannot determinee 8% 10% 
   
Daily caloric intake (kcal/day) 2,188 ± 842 2,101 ± 821 
   
% of calories from fat 32% 31% 
   
Consumption of cruciferous vegetables (g/day) 55 ± 63 58 ± 63 
   
Total carotenoid intake (mcg/day)f 13,127 ± 9,572 14,545 ± 11,414 
   
Vitamin C intake (mg/day)f 347 ± 528 388 ± 556 
   
Vitamin E intake (α-TE/day)f 52 ± 119 77 ± 157 
   
Fiber intake (g/day) 22 ± 10 23 ± 11 
a

More than 5 years prior to diagnosis/selection.

b

Diagnosed more than 2 years prior to diagnosis/selection.

c

Defined as goiter, thyroid nodules, or thyroid cancer.

d

Defined as within the 2 years before diagnosis/selection; analysis limited to women under age 45.

e

Women who began taking hormone replacement therapy before the cessation of menses and who had not yet attained age 55.

f

Including intake from food sources and supplements.

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