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Table 1.

Baseline characteristics by work-related stress categories.

Karasek job/demand control categoryb
VariableaLow strain (%), n = 35,056Passive (%), n = 18,505Active (%), n = 15,278High strain (%), n = 33,277Missing (%)
Demand/control low/high low/low high/high high/low 10,941 (10) 
Women, n (%) 15,015 (43) 10,215 (55) 7,009 (46) 18,631 (56) 0 (0) 
Age, years 45.8 (8.8) 47.4 (9.6) 45.0 (8.5) 45.2 (9.0) 0 (0) 
Postsecondary education, n (%) 15,372 (44) 2,979 (16) 6,240 (41) 5,621 (17) 1,877 (2) 
Current smokers, n (%) 6,157 (18) 4,036 (22) 2,943 (19) 7,614 (23) 235 (<1) 
Any sick leave >6 months, n (%) 4,077 (13) 3,617 (23) 1,855 (14) 5,211 (18) 15,689 (14) 
BMI, kg/m2 25.7 (4.0) 26.0 (4.4) 25.8 (4.1) 26.0 (4.4) 0 (0) 
Recreational physical activity, scale 1–5c 2.4 (1.3) 2.2 (1.3) 2.3 (1.3) 2.2 (1.3) 2,735 (2) 
Alcohol intake, g/day 4.9 (5.3) 3.4 (4.3) 4.8 (5.6) 3.5 (4.9) 9,796 (9) 
ISSIc 
AVSI, score 0–14 8.5 (1.5) 8.1 (1.7) 8.4 (1.6) 8.0 (1.7) 8,507 (8) 
AVAT, score 0–12 2.8 (1.7) 3.0 (2.0) 2.8 (1.8) 3.1 (2.1) 8,717 (8) 
Quality of lifec, score 1–7 
Satisfaction: family 6.2 (1.1) 6.1 (1.2) 6.0 (1.3) 5.9 (1.3) 47,006 (42) 
Satisfaction: housing 6.3 (1.0) 6.2 (1.1) 6.2 (1.1) 6.0 (1.2) 46,893 (41) 
Satisfaction: work 5.6 (1.4) 5.2 (1.7) 4.9 (1.5) 4.7 (1.6) 48,263 (43) 
Satisfaction: finances 5.7 (1.3) 5.3 (1.5) 5.3 (1.4) 5.1 (1.5) 47,019 (42) 
Satisfaction: leisure time 5.7 (1.3) 5.7 (1.4) 5.3 (1.5) 5.3 (1.5) 47,083 (42) 
Feel appreciated outside home 6.0 (1.0) 5.5 (1.2) 5.7 (1.1) 5.3 (1.3) 47,035 (42) 
Feel appreciated inside home 6.3 (1.0) 6.1 (1.1) 6.1 (1.1) 5.9 (1.2) 47:619 (42) 
Karasek job/demand control categoryb
VariableaLow strain (%), n = 35,056Passive (%), n = 18,505Active (%), n = 15,278High strain (%), n = 33,277Missing (%)
Demand/control low/high low/low high/high high/low 10,941 (10) 
Women, n (%) 15,015 (43) 10,215 (55) 7,009 (46) 18,631 (56) 0 (0) 
Age, years 45.8 (8.8) 47.4 (9.6) 45.0 (8.5) 45.2 (9.0) 0 (0) 
Postsecondary education, n (%) 15,372 (44) 2,979 (16) 6,240 (41) 5,621 (17) 1,877 (2) 
Current smokers, n (%) 6,157 (18) 4,036 (22) 2,943 (19) 7,614 (23) 235 (<1) 
Any sick leave >6 months, n (%) 4,077 (13) 3,617 (23) 1,855 (14) 5,211 (18) 15,689 (14) 
BMI, kg/m2 25.7 (4.0) 26.0 (4.4) 25.8 (4.1) 26.0 (4.4) 0 (0) 
Recreational physical activity, scale 1–5c 2.4 (1.3) 2.2 (1.3) 2.3 (1.3) 2.2 (1.3) 2,735 (2) 
Alcohol intake, g/day 4.9 (5.3) 3.4 (4.3) 4.8 (5.6) 3.5 (4.9) 9,796 (9) 
ISSIc 
AVSI, score 0–14 8.5 (1.5) 8.1 (1.7) 8.4 (1.6) 8.0 (1.7) 8,507 (8) 
AVAT, score 0–12 2.8 (1.7) 3.0 (2.0) 2.8 (1.8) 3.1 (2.1) 8,717 (8) 
Quality of lifec, score 1–7 
Satisfaction: family 6.2 (1.1) 6.1 (1.2) 6.0 (1.3) 5.9 (1.3) 47,006 (42) 
Satisfaction: housing 6.3 (1.0) 6.2 (1.1) 6.2 (1.1) 6.0 (1.2) 46,893 (41) 
Satisfaction: work 5.6 (1.4) 5.2 (1.7) 4.9 (1.5) 4.7 (1.6) 48,263 (43) 
Satisfaction: finances 5.7 (1.3) 5.3 (1.5) 5.3 (1.4) 5.1 (1.5) 47,019 (42) 
Satisfaction: leisure time 5.7 (1.3) 5.7 (1.4) 5.3 (1.5) 5.3 (1.5) 47,083 (42) 
Feel appreciated outside home 6.0 (1.0) 5.5 (1.2) 5.7 (1.1) 5.3 (1.3) 47,035 (42) 
Feel appreciated inside home 6.3 (1.0) 6.1 (1.1) 6.1 (1.1) 5.9 (1.2) 47:619 (42) 

aN (%) or mean (SD).

bχ2 or ANOVA tests of difference in distribution of all variables in the table by work-related stress categories were performed, with all P < 0.001.

cRanging from never to ≥3 times per week.

dQuestionnaire items, higher score indicates a higher availability, satisfaction, or degree of appreciation. Collected for the subset of participants sampled from 1996 and onward.

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