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Table 3.

Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for clearance of incident transient and persistent high-risk HPV infection by levels of circulating plasma micronutrients

Micronutrient/quartileQuartile range (ng/mL)Transient infections (first 120 d since detection)
Persistent infections (after 120 d of detection)
No. cleared/infections (mo)*Hazard ratio (95% confidence limits)PtrendNo. cleared/infections (mo)*Hazard ratio (95% confidence limits)Ptrend
Trans-lutein        
    Low 41.87-106.63 6/249 1.00  27/290 1.00  
    2 106.64-156.70 6/248 0.93 (0.28–3.12)  28/308 1.40 (0.84–2.36)  
    3 156.71-225.21 13/213 3.03 (1.20–7.70)  18/226 0.93 (0.52–1.68)  
    High 225.22-624.18 7/249 1.74 (0.50–5.99) 0.33 28/282 1.40 (0.82–2.36) 0.38 
Trans-zeaxanthin        
    Low 20.28-46.40 6/245 1.00  29/290 1.00  
    2 46.41-58.22 8/254 1.99 (0.67–5.87)  22/279 0.71 (0.43–1.18)  
    3 58.23-82.69 10/232 3.24 (1.02–10.28)  19/253 0.58 (0.32–1.08)  
    High 82.70-281.10 8/229 2.18 (0.52–9.17) 0.36 31/283 1.27 (0.73–2.22) 0.17 
Total trans-lutein/zeaxanthin        
    Low 73.53-158.68 4/242 1.00  31/311 1.00  
    2 158.69-212.03 6/252 1.08 (0.27–4.34)  23/266 1.09 (0.63–1.87)  
    3 212.04-303.92 13/229 4.75 (1.62–13.89)  18/254 0.73 (0.39–1.35)  
    High 303.93-905.29 9/237 3.15 (1.04–9.53) 0.03 23/275 1.26 (0.75–2.11) 0.42 
Total cis-lutein/zeaxanthin and trans-lutein/zeaxanthin        
    Low 112.67-259.20 4/252 1.00  33/310 1.00  
    2 259.21-332.78 8/238 1.80 (0.59–5.51)  17/266 0.88 (0.50–1.56)  
    3 332.79-452.23 12/232 4.53 (1.32–15.54)  26/267 1.15 (0.65–2.04)  
    High 452.24-1,287.6 8/239 3.05 (0.87–10.74) 0.11 25/262 1.11 (0.63–1.93) 0.60 
α-Cryptoxanthin        
    Low 0.33-33.52 6/219 1.00  31/296 1.00  
    2 33.53-43.53 5/242 0.83 (0.24–2.82)  28/312 0.71 (0.41–1.21)  
    3 43.54-54.44 10/251 1.81 (0.65–5.05)  18/239 0.84 (0.43–1.65)  
    High 54.45-106.45 11/248 1.97 (0.76–5.10) 0.06 24/258 0.73 (0.39–1.37) 0.54 
β-Cryptoxanthin        
    Low 17.54-113.85 5/237 1.00  29/306 1.00  
    2 113.86-158.65 6/244 1.31 (0.34–5.10)  29/301 0.85 (0.52–1.38)  
    3 158.66-242.59 7/234 1.78 (0.51–6.17)  22/267 0.86 (0.50–1.46)  
    High 242.60-1,114.6 14/245 4.65 (1.65–13.09) 0.003 21/231 0.94 (0.51–1.73) 0.97 
Total cryptoxanthin        
    Low 17.87-148.75 6/235 1.00  27/295 1.00  
    2 148.76-207.65 5/245 0.87 (0.20–3.75)  30/306 0.91 (0.54–1.53)  
    3 207.66-296.12 7/237 1.46 (0.44–4.85)  23/274 0.99 (0.57–1.71)  
    High 296.13-1,164.6 14/244 3.47 (1.36–8.87) 0.003 21/230 1.02 (0.54–1.94) 0.84 
Total trans-lycopene and cis-lycopene        
    Low 0.00-29.49 3/241 1.00  28/312 1.00  
    2 29.50-42.89 10/239 2.44 (0.51–11.75)  26/277 0.99 (0.60–1.64)  
    3 42.90-59.30 4/241 1.51 (0.27–8.34)  27/300 1.15 (0.70–1.88)  
    High 59.31-245.11 15/238 7.03 (1.61–30.70) 0.004 20/216 1.14 (0.64–2.02) 0.57 
Total lycopene        
    Low 55.96-251.67 9/236 1.00  25/258 1.00  
    2 251.68-337.62 9/213 1.28 (0.42–3.91)  25/267 1.03 (0.60–1.74)  
    3 337.63-449.99 7/262 0.50 (0.16–1.54)  29/296 1.16 (0.71–1.89)  
    High 450.00-941.04 7/249 0.61 (0.18–2.09) 0.32 22/285 0.60 (0.35–1.04) 0.07 
α-Carotene        
    Low 0.07-26.81 6/246 1.00  26/305 1.00  
    2 26.82-46.00 8/248 1.16 (0.45–2.98)  25/297 0.76 (0.44–1.29)  
    3 46.01-68.81 4/225 0.84 (0.20–3.51)  26/270 0.91 (0.49–1.72)  
    High 68.82-388.36 14/241 3.02 (1.07–8.53) 0.02 24/233 1.27 (0.67–2.39) 0.25 
Trans-β-carotene        
    Low 1.87-86.14 7/245 1.00  28/296 1.00  
    2 86.15-160.90 5/229 0.79 (0.25–2.46)  22/280 0.85 (0.47–1.52)  
    3 160.91-252.15 6/268 0.49 (0.14–1.76)  28/292 1.34 (0.79–2.28)  
    High 252.16-1,405.5 14/218 3.52 (1.44–8.62) 0.008 23/238 1.43 (0.76–2.69) 0.11 
Cis-β-carotene        
    Low 0.00-7.78 5/249 1.00  33/304 1.00  
    2 7.79-14.76 8/224 1.31 (0.37–4.65)  17/271 0.74 (0.40–1.39)  
    3 14.77-23.95 8/258 1.22 (0.31–4.88)  25/279 1.03 (0.60–1.77)  
    High 23.96-97.36 11/228 3.43 (1.18–9.93) 0.03 26/252 1.63 (0.90–2.95) 0.04 
Total β-carotene        
    Low 2.53-96.54 6/242 1.00  30/300 1.00  
    2 96.55-172.86 5/239 0.90 (0.29–2.77)  22/286 0.82 (0.46–1.46)  
    3 172.87-281.15 8/259 0.88 (0.27–2.92)  26/278 1.23 (0.72–2.08)  
    High 281.16-1,496.4 13/220 3.79 (1.59–9.00) 0.005 23/242 1.31 (0.70–2.47) 0.19 
Total carotene        
    Low 2.60-127.16 6/247 1.00  29/295 1.00  
    2 127.17-225.29 5/213 1.08 (0.35–3.32)  22/294 0.86 (0.49–1.50)  
    3 225.30-379.95 7/272 0.82 (0.25–2.66)  25/281 1.15 (0.67–1.99)  
    High 379.96-1,724.4 14/228 3.72 (1.50–9.23) 0.007 25/236 1.56 (0.82–2.96) 0.08 
Total carotenoids        
    Low 198.91-983.25 5/229 1.00  27/283 1.00  
    2 983.26-1,329.3 10/256 1.70 (0.44–6.51)  24/302 1.01 (0.58–1.75)  
    3 1,329.4-1,755.8 6/242 1.42 (0.36–5.55)  27/271 1.12 (0.62–2.02)  
    High 1,755.9-3,979.0 11/233 2.73 (0.79–9.38) 0.11 23/248 1.29 (0.69–2.43) 0.36 
Retinol        
    Low 0.00-569.45 9/284 1.00  26/279 1.00  
    2 569.46-719.20 10/244 0.91 (0.32–2.60)  21/231 1.04 (0.56–1.92)  
    3 719.21-865.26 8/224 1.03 (0.36–2.92)  29/282 0.87 (0.52–1.44)  
    High 865.27-1,624.2 5/208 0.86 (0.22–3.41) 0.87 25/314 0.65 (0.40–1.07) 0.051 
α-Tocopherol        
    Low 3,490.4-7,536.0 9/269 1.00  30/296 1.00  
    2 7,536.1-9,391.3 6/231 1.05 (0.31–3.56)  27/253 1.01 (0.55–1.86)  
    3 9,391.4-12,375 5/288 0.74 (0.24–2.29)  20/295 0.80 (0.46–1.39)  
    High 12,376-36,621 12/171 3.48 (1.33–9.11) 0.02 24/262 1.18 (0.60–2.33) 0.68 
β-Tocopherol and γ-tocopherol        
    Low 29.80-643.85 8/244 1.00  28/292 1.00  
    2 643.86-1,073.0 11/228 1.43 (0.46–4.43)  22/277 0.66 (0.37–1.19)  
    3 1,073.1-1,573.6 4/246 0.34 (0.08–1.51)  28/275 0.83 (0.47–1.47)  
    High 1,573.7-3,564.0 9/241 0.98 (0.33–2.95) 0.56 23/261 0.88 (0.51–1.52) 0.89 
δ-Tocopherol        
    Low 24.28-165.59 9/251 1.00  23/258 1.00  
    2 165.60-243.57 9/225 1.41 (0.38–5.31)  23/297 0.78 (0.44–1.38)  
    3 243.58-417.73 7/246 1.04 (0.29–3.78)  29/271 1.02 (0.56–1.85)  
    High 417.74-1,090.3 7/237 1.05 (0.29–3.79) 0.88 26/280 1.01 (0.56–1.82) 0.66 
Total tocopherol        
    Low 4,528.2-9,336.0 8/258 1.00  29/292 1.00  
    2 9,336.1-10,885 7/236 1.19 (0.39–3.68)  27/264 1.03 (0.54–1.96)  
    3 10,886-13,604 6/289 0.96 (0.35–2.68)  19/274 0.88 (0.45–1.71)  
    High 13,605-37,092 11/178 3.25 (1.21–8.71) 0.03 26/276 1.32 (0.69–2.50) 0.37 
Micronutrient/quartileQuartile range (ng/mL)Transient infections (first 120 d since detection)
Persistent infections (after 120 d of detection)
No. cleared/infections (mo)*Hazard ratio (95% confidence limits)PtrendNo. cleared/infections (mo)*Hazard ratio (95% confidence limits)Ptrend
Trans-lutein        
    Low 41.87-106.63 6/249 1.00  27/290 1.00  
    2 106.64-156.70 6/248 0.93 (0.28–3.12)  28/308 1.40 (0.84–2.36)  
    3 156.71-225.21 13/213 3.03 (1.20–7.70)  18/226 0.93 (0.52–1.68)  
    High 225.22-624.18 7/249 1.74 (0.50–5.99) 0.33 28/282 1.40 (0.82–2.36) 0.38 
Trans-zeaxanthin        
    Low 20.28-46.40 6/245 1.00  29/290 1.00  
    2 46.41-58.22 8/254 1.99 (0.67–5.87)  22/279 0.71 (0.43–1.18)  
    3 58.23-82.69 10/232 3.24 (1.02–10.28)  19/253 0.58 (0.32–1.08)  
    High 82.70-281.10 8/229 2.18 (0.52–9.17) 0.36 31/283 1.27 (0.73–2.22) 0.17 
Total trans-lutein/zeaxanthin        
    Low 73.53-158.68 4/242 1.00  31/311 1.00  
    2 158.69-212.03 6/252 1.08 (0.27–4.34)  23/266 1.09 (0.63–1.87)  
    3 212.04-303.92 13/229 4.75 (1.62–13.89)  18/254 0.73 (0.39–1.35)  
    High 303.93-905.29 9/237 3.15 (1.04–9.53) 0.03 23/275 1.26 (0.75–2.11) 0.42 
Total cis-lutein/zeaxanthin and trans-lutein/zeaxanthin        
    Low 112.67-259.20 4/252 1.00  33/310 1.00  
    2 259.21-332.78 8/238 1.80 (0.59–5.51)  17/266 0.88 (0.50–1.56)  
    3 332.79-452.23 12/232 4.53 (1.32–15.54)  26/267 1.15 (0.65–2.04)  
    High 452.24-1,287.6 8/239 3.05 (0.87–10.74) 0.11 25/262 1.11 (0.63–1.93) 0.60 
α-Cryptoxanthin        
    Low 0.33-33.52 6/219 1.00  31/296 1.00  
    2 33.53-43.53 5/242 0.83 (0.24–2.82)  28/312 0.71 (0.41–1.21)  
    3 43.54-54.44 10/251 1.81 (0.65–5.05)  18/239 0.84 (0.43–1.65)  
    High 54.45-106.45 11/248 1.97 (0.76–5.10) 0.06 24/258 0.73 (0.39–1.37) 0.54 
β-Cryptoxanthin        
    Low 17.54-113.85 5/237 1.00  29/306 1.00  
    2 113.86-158.65 6/244 1.31 (0.34–5.10)  29/301 0.85 (0.52–1.38)  
    3 158.66-242.59 7/234 1.78 (0.51–6.17)  22/267 0.86 (0.50–1.46)  
    High 242.60-1,114.6 14/245 4.65 (1.65–13.09) 0.003 21/231 0.94 (0.51–1.73) 0.97 
Total cryptoxanthin        
    Low 17.87-148.75 6/235 1.00  27/295 1.00  
    2 148.76-207.65 5/245 0.87 (0.20–3.75)  30/306 0.91 (0.54–1.53)  
    3 207.66-296.12 7/237 1.46 (0.44–4.85)  23/274 0.99 (0.57–1.71)  
    High 296.13-1,164.6 14/244 3.47 (1.36–8.87) 0.003 21/230 1.02 (0.54–1.94) 0.84 
Total trans-lycopene and cis-lycopene        
    Low 0.00-29.49 3/241 1.00  28/312 1.00  
    2 29.50-42.89 10/239 2.44 (0.51–11.75)  26/277 0.99 (0.60–1.64)  
    3 42.90-59.30 4/241 1.51 (0.27–8.34)  27/300 1.15 (0.70–1.88)  
    High 59.31-245.11 15/238 7.03 (1.61–30.70) 0.004 20/216 1.14 (0.64–2.02) 0.57 
Total lycopene        
    Low 55.96-251.67 9/236 1.00  25/258 1.00  
    2 251.68-337.62 9/213 1.28 (0.42–3.91)  25/267 1.03 (0.60–1.74)  
    3 337.63-449.99 7/262 0.50 (0.16–1.54)  29/296 1.16 (0.71–1.89)  
    High 450.00-941.04 7/249 0.61 (0.18–2.09) 0.32 22/285 0.60 (0.35–1.04) 0.07 
α-Carotene        
    Low 0.07-26.81 6/246 1.00  26/305 1.00  
    2 26.82-46.00 8/248 1.16 (0.45–2.98)  25/297 0.76 (0.44–1.29)  
    3 46.01-68.81 4/225 0.84 (0.20–3.51)  26/270 0.91 (0.49–1.72)  
    High 68.82-388.36 14/241 3.02 (1.07–8.53) 0.02 24/233 1.27 (0.67–2.39) 0.25 
Trans-β-carotene        
    Low 1.87-86.14 7/245 1.00  28/296 1.00  
    2 86.15-160.90 5/229 0.79 (0.25–2.46)  22/280 0.85 (0.47–1.52)  
    3 160.91-252.15 6/268 0.49 (0.14–1.76)  28/292 1.34 (0.79–2.28)  
    High 252.16-1,405.5 14/218 3.52 (1.44–8.62) 0.008 23/238 1.43 (0.76–2.69) 0.11 
Cis-β-carotene        
    Low 0.00-7.78 5/249 1.00  33/304 1.00  
    2 7.79-14.76 8/224 1.31 (0.37–4.65)  17/271 0.74 (0.40–1.39)  
    3 14.77-23.95 8/258 1.22 (0.31–4.88)  25/279 1.03 (0.60–1.77)  
    High 23.96-97.36 11/228 3.43 (1.18–9.93) 0.03 26/252 1.63 (0.90–2.95) 0.04 
Total β-carotene        
    Low 2.53-96.54 6/242 1.00  30/300 1.00  
    2 96.55-172.86 5/239 0.90 (0.29–2.77)  22/286 0.82 (0.46–1.46)  
    3 172.87-281.15 8/259 0.88 (0.27–2.92)  26/278 1.23 (0.72–2.08)  
    High 281.16-1,496.4 13/220 3.79 (1.59–9.00) 0.005 23/242 1.31 (0.70–2.47) 0.19 
Total carotene        
    Low 2.60-127.16 6/247 1.00  29/295 1.00  
    2 127.17-225.29 5/213 1.08 (0.35–3.32)  22/294 0.86 (0.49–1.50)  
    3 225.30-379.95 7/272 0.82 (0.25–2.66)  25/281 1.15 (0.67–1.99)  
    High 379.96-1,724.4 14/228 3.72 (1.50–9.23) 0.007 25/236 1.56 (0.82–2.96) 0.08 
Total carotenoids        
    Low 198.91-983.25 5/229 1.00  27/283 1.00  
    2 983.26-1,329.3 10/256 1.70 (0.44–6.51)  24/302 1.01 (0.58–1.75)  
    3 1,329.4-1,755.8 6/242 1.42 (0.36–5.55)  27/271 1.12 (0.62–2.02)  
    High 1,755.9-3,979.0 11/233 2.73 (0.79–9.38) 0.11 23/248 1.29 (0.69–2.43) 0.36 
Retinol        
    Low 0.00-569.45 9/284 1.00  26/279 1.00  
    2 569.46-719.20 10/244 0.91 (0.32–2.60)  21/231 1.04 (0.56–1.92)  
    3 719.21-865.26 8/224 1.03 (0.36–2.92)  29/282 0.87 (0.52–1.44)  
    High 865.27-1,624.2 5/208 0.86 (0.22–3.41) 0.87 25/314 0.65 (0.40–1.07) 0.051 
α-Tocopherol        
    Low 3,490.4-7,536.0 9/269 1.00  30/296 1.00  
    2 7,536.1-9,391.3 6/231 1.05 (0.31–3.56)  27/253 1.01 (0.55–1.86)  
    3 9,391.4-12,375 5/288 0.74 (0.24–2.29)  20/295 0.80 (0.46–1.39)  
    High 12,376-36,621 12/171 3.48 (1.33–9.11) 0.02 24/262 1.18 (0.60–2.33) 0.68 
β-Tocopherol and γ-tocopherol        
    Low 29.80-643.85 8/244 1.00  28/292 1.00  
    2 643.86-1,073.0 11/228 1.43 (0.46–4.43)  22/277 0.66 (0.37–1.19)  
    3 1,073.1-1,573.6 4/246 0.34 (0.08–1.51)  28/275 0.83 (0.47–1.47)  
    High 1,573.7-3,564.0 9/241 0.98 (0.33–2.95) 0.56 23/261 0.88 (0.51–1.52) 0.89 
δ-Tocopherol        
    Low 24.28-165.59 9/251 1.00  23/258 1.00  
    2 165.60-243.57 9/225 1.41 (0.38–5.31)  23/297 0.78 (0.44–1.38)  
    3 243.58-417.73 7/246 1.04 (0.29–3.78)  29/271 1.02 (0.56–1.85)  
    High 417.74-1,090.3 7/237 1.05 (0.29–3.79) 0.88 26/280 1.01 (0.56–1.82) 0.66 
Total tocopherol        
    Low 4,528.2-9,336.0 8/258 1.00  29/292 1.00  
    2 9,336.1-10,885 7/236 1.19 (0.39–3.68)  27/264 1.03 (0.54–1.96)  
    3 10,886-13,604 6/289 0.96 (0.35–2.68)  19/274 0.88 (0.45–1.71)  
    High 13,605-37,092 11/178 3.25 (1.21–8.71) 0.03 26/276 1.32 (0.69–2.50) 0.37 
*

Cumulative infection length in months, from first positive to first negative visit.

Adjusted for age at first visit, current tobacco smoking status, number of lifetime sexual partners, age at first sex, blood frozen over 1 y indicator variable, coinfection status.

The P for trend is based on a Wald statistic for a trend variable assigned the median for the appropriate quartile.

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