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Table 2.

Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for clearance of incident high-risk HPV infection by levels of circulating plasma micronutrients

Micronutrient/quartileQuartile range (ng/mL)No. cleared/infections (mo)*Hazard ratio (95% confidence limits)Ptrend
Trans-lutein     
    Low 41.87-106.63 33/345 1.00  
    2 106.64-156.70 35/362 1.23 (0.82–1.85)  
    3 156.71-225.21 31/326 1.26 (0.79–2.01)  
    High 225.22-624.18 35/342 1.49 (0.91–2.43) 0.16 
Trans-zeaxanthin     
    Low 20.28-46.40 36/356 1.00  
    2 46.41-58.22 30/349 0.88 (0.58–1.32)  
    3 58.23-82.69 29/332 0.94 (0.57–1.53)  
    High 82.70-281.10 39/338 1.50 (0.94–2.39) 0.04 
Total trans-lutein/zeaxanthin     
    Low 73.53-158.68 35/356 1.00  
    2 158.69-212.03 30/344 1.05 (0.67–1.65)  
    3 212.04-303.92 31/339 1.14 (0.72–1.83)  
    High 303.93-905.29 38/337 1.59 (1.01–2.51) 0.04 
Total cis-lutein/zeaxanthin and trans-lutein/zeaxanthin     
    Low 112.67-259.20 37/354 1.00  
    2 259.21-332.78 26/345 0.97 (0.62–1.52)  
    3 332.79-452.23 38/341 1.50 (0.95–2.38)  
    High 452.24-1,287.6 33/335 1.42 (0.88–2.31) 0.12 
α-Cryptoxanthin     
    Low 0.33-33.52 37/348 1.00  
    2 33.53-43.53 33/355 0.84 (0.53–1.33)  
    3 43.54-54.44 29/333 1.21 (0.68–2.15)  
    High 54.45-106.45 35/339 1.12 (0.70–1.80) 0.33 
β-Cryptoxanthin     
    Low 17.54-113.85 34/353 1.00  
    2 113.86-158.65 36/362 0.99 (0.63–1.57)  
    3 158.66-242.59 29/339 1.05 (0.65–1.71)  
    High 242.60-1,114.6 35/321 1.64 (0.99–2.73) 0.04 
Total cryptoxanthin     
    Low 17.87-148.75 33/350 1.00  
    2 148.76-207.65 36/359 1.02 (0.64–1.61)  
    3 207.66-296.12 30/346 1.14 (0.70–1.84)  
    High 296.13-1,164.6 35/320 1.72 (1.02–2.88) 0.03 
Total trans-lycopene and cis-lycopene     
    Low 0.00-29.49 31/355 1.00  
    2 29.50-42.89 37/348 1.23 (0.76–1.98)  
    3 42.90-59.30 31/359 1.24 (0.78–1.95)  
    High 59.31-245.11 35/314 2.06 (1.23–3.44) 0.01 
Total lycopene     
    Low 55.96-251.67 34/334 1.00  
    2 251.68-337.62 34/334 1.04 (0.66–1.65)  
    3 337.63-449.99 36/353 0.96 (0.65–1.43)  
    High 450.00-941.04 30/355 0.71 (0.44–1.16) 0.13 
α-Carotene     
    Low 0.07-26.81 32/354 1.00  
    2 26.82-46.00 33/363 0.89 (0.56–1.40)  
    3 46.01-68.81 31/334 1.14 (0.66–1.97)  
    High 68.82-388.36 38/323 1.78 (1.03–3.06) 0.009 
Trans-β-carotene     
    Low 1.87-86.14 35/356 1.00  
    2 86.15-160.90 27/343 0.85 (0.51–1.41)  
    3 160.91-252.15 35/354 1.25 (0.80–1.96)  
    High 252.16-1,405.5 37/322 1.84 (1.13–2.99) 0.004 
Cis-β-carotene     
    Low 0.00-7.78 38/361 1.00  
    2 7.79-14.76 25/344 0.84 (0.51–1.40)  
    3 14.77-23.95 34/346 1.22 (0.76–1.96)  
    High 23.96-97.36 37/324 1.94 (1.20–3.13) 0.002 
Total β-carotene     
    Low 2.53-96.54 36/362 1.00  
    2 96.55-172.86 27/345 0.86 (0.52–1.41)  
    3 172.87-281.15 35/344 1.31 (0.84–2.06)  
    High 281.16-1,496.4 36/324 1.74 (1.07–2.85) 0.007 
Total carotene     
    Low 2.60-127.16 35/357 1.00  
    2 127.17-225.29 27/347 0.89 (0.54–1.46)  
    3 225.30-379.95 33/349 1.22 (0.77–1.94)  
    High 379.96-1,724.4 39/324 1.98 (1.21–3.23) 0.001 
Total carotenoids     
    Low 198.91-983.25 32/348 1.00  
    2 983.26-1,329.3 34/354 1.13 (0.71–1.81)  
    3 1,329.4-1,755.8 34/340 1.31 (0.84–2.04)  
    High 1,755.9-3,979.0 34/333 1.75 (1.03–2.97) 0.03 
Retinol     
    Low 0.00-569.45 35/356 1.00  
    2 569.46-719.20 32/317 1.15 (0.72–1.83)  
    3 719.21-865.26 37/353 1.02 (0.67–1.55)  
    High 865.27-1,624.2 30/350 0.77 (0.48–1.24) 0.21 
α-Tocopherol     
    Low 3,490.4-7,536.0 39/358 1.00  
    2 7,536.1-9,391.3 33/325 0.94 (0.57–1.56)  
    3 9,391.4-12,375 26/367 0.75 (0.48–1.17)  
    High 12,376-36,621 36/325 1.38 (0.80–2.38) 0.22 
β-Tocopherol and γ-tocopherol     
    Low 29.80-643.85 36/352 1.00  
    2 643.86-1,073.0 33/342 0.83 (0.52–1.33)  
    3 1,073.1-1,573.6 32/341 0.74 (0.45–1.20)  
    High 1,573.7-3,564.0 33/341 0.91 (0.58–1.42) 0.66 
δ-Tocopherol     
    Low 24.28-165.59 33/339 1.00  
    2 165.60-243.57 32/348 0.88 (0.56–1.38)  
    3 243.58-417.73 36/352 0.90 (0.54–1.49)  
    High 417.74-1,090.3 33/337 0.91 (0.56–1.49) 0.85 
Total tocopherol     
    Low 4,528.2-9,336.0 37/354 1.00  
    2 9,336.1-10,885 34/334 1.03 (0.65–1.63)  
    3 10,886-13,604 26/356 0.84 (0.53–1.34)  
    High 13,605-37,092 37/332 1.47 (0.89–2.41) 0.13 
Micronutrient/quartileQuartile range (ng/mL)No. cleared/infections (mo)*Hazard ratio (95% confidence limits)Ptrend
Trans-lutein     
    Low 41.87-106.63 33/345 1.00  
    2 106.64-156.70 35/362 1.23 (0.82–1.85)  
    3 156.71-225.21 31/326 1.26 (0.79–2.01)  
    High 225.22-624.18 35/342 1.49 (0.91–2.43) 0.16 
Trans-zeaxanthin     
    Low 20.28-46.40 36/356 1.00  
    2 46.41-58.22 30/349 0.88 (0.58–1.32)  
    3 58.23-82.69 29/332 0.94 (0.57–1.53)  
    High 82.70-281.10 39/338 1.50 (0.94–2.39) 0.04 
Total trans-lutein/zeaxanthin     
    Low 73.53-158.68 35/356 1.00  
    2 158.69-212.03 30/344 1.05 (0.67–1.65)  
    3 212.04-303.92 31/339 1.14 (0.72–1.83)  
    High 303.93-905.29 38/337 1.59 (1.01–2.51) 0.04 
Total cis-lutein/zeaxanthin and trans-lutein/zeaxanthin     
    Low 112.67-259.20 37/354 1.00  
    2 259.21-332.78 26/345 0.97 (0.62–1.52)  
    3 332.79-452.23 38/341 1.50 (0.95–2.38)  
    High 452.24-1,287.6 33/335 1.42 (0.88–2.31) 0.12 
α-Cryptoxanthin     
    Low 0.33-33.52 37/348 1.00  
    2 33.53-43.53 33/355 0.84 (0.53–1.33)  
    3 43.54-54.44 29/333 1.21 (0.68–2.15)  
    High 54.45-106.45 35/339 1.12 (0.70–1.80) 0.33 
β-Cryptoxanthin     
    Low 17.54-113.85 34/353 1.00  
    2 113.86-158.65 36/362 0.99 (0.63–1.57)  
    3 158.66-242.59 29/339 1.05 (0.65–1.71)  
    High 242.60-1,114.6 35/321 1.64 (0.99–2.73) 0.04 
Total cryptoxanthin     
    Low 17.87-148.75 33/350 1.00  
    2 148.76-207.65 36/359 1.02 (0.64–1.61)  
    3 207.66-296.12 30/346 1.14 (0.70–1.84)  
    High 296.13-1,164.6 35/320 1.72 (1.02–2.88) 0.03 
Total trans-lycopene and cis-lycopene     
    Low 0.00-29.49 31/355 1.00  
    2 29.50-42.89 37/348 1.23 (0.76–1.98)  
    3 42.90-59.30 31/359 1.24 (0.78–1.95)  
    High 59.31-245.11 35/314 2.06 (1.23–3.44) 0.01 
Total lycopene     
    Low 55.96-251.67 34/334 1.00  
    2 251.68-337.62 34/334 1.04 (0.66–1.65)  
    3 337.63-449.99 36/353 0.96 (0.65–1.43)  
    High 450.00-941.04 30/355 0.71 (0.44–1.16) 0.13 
α-Carotene     
    Low 0.07-26.81 32/354 1.00  
    2 26.82-46.00 33/363 0.89 (0.56–1.40)  
    3 46.01-68.81 31/334 1.14 (0.66–1.97)  
    High 68.82-388.36 38/323 1.78 (1.03–3.06) 0.009 
Trans-β-carotene     
    Low 1.87-86.14 35/356 1.00  
    2 86.15-160.90 27/343 0.85 (0.51–1.41)  
    3 160.91-252.15 35/354 1.25 (0.80–1.96)  
    High 252.16-1,405.5 37/322 1.84 (1.13–2.99) 0.004 
Cis-β-carotene     
    Low 0.00-7.78 38/361 1.00  
    2 7.79-14.76 25/344 0.84 (0.51–1.40)  
    3 14.77-23.95 34/346 1.22 (0.76–1.96)  
    High 23.96-97.36 37/324 1.94 (1.20–3.13) 0.002 
Total β-carotene     
    Low 2.53-96.54 36/362 1.00  
    2 96.55-172.86 27/345 0.86 (0.52–1.41)  
    3 172.87-281.15 35/344 1.31 (0.84–2.06)  
    High 281.16-1,496.4 36/324 1.74 (1.07–2.85) 0.007 
Total carotene     
    Low 2.60-127.16 35/357 1.00  
    2 127.17-225.29 27/347 0.89 (0.54–1.46)  
    3 225.30-379.95 33/349 1.22 (0.77–1.94)  
    High 379.96-1,724.4 39/324 1.98 (1.21–3.23) 0.001 
Total carotenoids     
    Low 198.91-983.25 32/348 1.00  
    2 983.26-1,329.3 34/354 1.13 (0.71–1.81)  
    3 1,329.4-1,755.8 34/340 1.31 (0.84–2.04)  
    High 1,755.9-3,979.0 34/333 1.75 (1.03–2.97) 0.03 
Retinol     
    Low 0.00-569.45 35/356 1.00  
    2 569.46-719.20 32/317 1.15 (0.72–1.83)  
    3 719.21-865.26 37/353 1.02 (0.67–1.55)  
    High 865.27-1,624.2 30/350 0.77 (0.48–1.24) 0.21 
α-Tocopherol     
    Low 3,490.4-7,536.0 39/358 1.00  
    2 7,536.1-9,391.3 33/325 0.94 (0.57–1.56)  
    3 9,391.4-12,375 26/367 0.75 (0.48–1.17)  
    High 12,376-36,621 36/325 1.38 (0.80–2.38) 0.22 
β-Tocopherol and γ-tocopherol     
    Low 29.80-643.85 36/352 1.00  
    2 643.86-1,073.0 33/342 0.83 (0.52–1.33)  
    3 1,073.1-1,573.6 32/341 0.74 (0.45–1.20)  
    High 1,573.7-3,564.0 33/341 0.91 (0.58–1.42) 0.66 
δ-Tocopherol     
    Low 24.28-165.59 33/339 1.00  
    2 165.60-243.57 32/348 0.88 (0.56–1.38)  
    3 243.58-417.73 36/352 0.90 (0.54–1.49)  
    High 417.74-1,090.3 33/337 0.91 (0.56–1.49) 0.85 
Total tocopherol     
    Low 4,528.2-9,336.0 37/354 1.00  
    2 9,336.1-10,885 34/334 1.03 (0.65–1.63)  
    3 10,886-13,604 26/356 0.84 (0.53–1.34)  
    High 13,605-37,092 37/332 1.47 (0.89–2.41) 0.13 
*

Cumulative infection length in months, from first positive to first negative visit.

Adjusted for age at first visit, current tobacco smoking status, number of lifetime sexual partners, age at first sex, blood frozen over 1 y indicator variable, and coinfection status.

Ptrend is based on a Wald statistic for a trend variable assigned the median for the appropriate quartile.

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