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Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of prostate cancer case and control subjects enrolled in the Physicians' Health Study

CharacteristicCases (n = 567)Controls (n = 764)
Mean age at baseline ± SD (y)* 60.7 ± 7.6 60.8 ± 7.6 
Mean age at diagnosis ± SD (y) 68.5 ± 6.7  
Smoking status (%)*   
    Current 8.1 8.4 
    Former 46.0 46.6 
Disease status (%)   
    Nonaggressive prostate cancer 49.6  
    Aggressive prostate cancer 48.5  
    Unknown 1.9  
MnSOD allele (%)   
    Valine (V) 48.7 49.7 
    Alanine (A) 51.3 50.3 
MnSOD polymorphism (%)   
    MnSOD VV 132 (23.3) 190 (24.9) 
    MnSOD VA 288 (50.8) 379 (49.6) 
    MnSOD AA 147 (25.9) 195 (25.5) 
Plasma antioxidant levels   
    α-Carotene (ng/mL) 55.6 (26.4-132.0) 60.7 (24.9-148.5) 
    β-Carotene (ng/mL) 226.2 (96.1-488.1) 226.6 (98.6-520.9) 
    β-cryptoxanthin (ng/mL) 65.3 (26.4-148.2) 63.6 (28.8-146.1) 
    Lutein (ng/mL) 96.1 (51.3-224.8) 88.6 (50.1-193.7) 
    Lycopene (ng/mL) 385.9 (191.7-673.2) 392.5 (209.1-694.2) 
    α-Tocopherol (ng/mL) 11,174.8 (7,119.6-17,623.8) 10,878.9 (7,688.8-17,409.9) 
    γ-Tocopherol (ng/mL) 1,770.2 (978.8-2,949.9) 1,743.7 (1,025.0-2,922.3) 
    Retinol (ng/mL) 574.2 (408.4-797.4) 548.9 (394.9-751.5) 
    Selenium (ppm) 0.106 (0.084-0.130) 0.107 (0.084-0.131) 
Receive β-carotene assignment (%) 48.3 52.5 
CharacteristicCases (n = 567)Controls (n = 764)
Mean age at baseline ± SD (y)* 60.7 ± 7.6 60.8 ± 7.6 
Mean age at diagnosis ± SD (y) 68.5 ± 6.7  
Smoking status (%)*   
    Current 8.1 8.4 
    Former 46.0 46.6 
Disease status (%)   
    Nonaggressive prostate cancer 49.6  
    Aggressive prostate cancer 48.5  
    Unknown 1.9  
MnSOD allele (%)   
    Valine (V) 48.7 49.7 
    Alanine (A) 51.3 50.3 
MnSOD polymorphism (%)   
    MnSOD VV 132 (23.3) 190 (24.9) 
    MnSOD VA 288 (50.8) 379 (49.6) 
    MnSOD AA 147 (25.9) 195 (25.5) 
Plasma antioxidant levels   
    α-Carotene (ng/mL) 55.6 (26.4-132.0) 60.7 (24.9-148.5) 
    β-Carotene (ng/mL) 226.2 (96.1-488.1) 226.6 (98.6-520.9) 
    β-cryptoxanthin (ng/mL) 65.3 (26.4-148.2) 63.6 (28.8-146.1) 
    Lutein (ng/mL) 96.1 (51.3-224.8) 88.6 (50.1-193.7) 
    Lycopene (ng/mL) 385.9 (191.7-673.2) 392.5 (209.1-694.2) 
    α-Tocopherol (ng/mL) 11,174.8 (7,119.6-17,623.8) 10,878.9 (7,688.8-17,409.9) 
    γ-Tocopherol (ng/mL) 1,770.2 (978.8-2,949.9) 1,743.7 (1,025.0-2,922.3) 
    Retinol (ng/mL) 574.2 (408.4-797.4) 548.9 (394.9-751.5) 
    Selenium (ppm) 0.106 (0.084-0.130) 0.107 (0.084-0.131) 
Receive β-carotene assignment (%) 48.3 52.5 
*

Matching variable.

Aggressive prostate cancer, stage C or D, high-grade tumor (Gleason score 7-10), or prostate cancer deaths during the follow-up; nonaggressive prostate cancer, stage A or B and low grade (Gleason score 2-6) tumor.

Values are medians (10th and 90th percentile); antioxidant levels were available for 511 to 541 cases and 423 to 642 controls.

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