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Table 3.

Meat-cooking mutagens and risk for colorectal adenoma

MutagenAll adenomas (n = 3,696)
Stage
Site*
Number of adenomas
OR (95% CI)Nonadvanced (n = 2,271)
Advanced (n = 1,425)Colon (n = 2,474)
Rectum (n = 688)Single (n = 2,796)
Multiple (n = 900)
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Mutagenicity        
    Q2 (1,091.0-2,419.5) 1.00 (0.88-1.12) 1.02 (0.88-1.19) 0.95 (0.79-1.14) 1.00 (0.87-1.16) 0.95 (0.73-1.22) 1.04 (0.91-1.19) 0.86 (0.67-1.09) 
    Q3 (2,419.8-4,507.8) 1.06 (0.95-1.20) 1.09 (0.94-1.27) 1.03 (0.85-1.23) 1.07 (0.93-1.24) 0.99 (0.77-1.28) 1.11 (0.98-1.27) 0.91 (0.72-1.16) 
    Q4 (4,509.8-9,352.9) 1.14 (1.01-1.28) 1.17 (1.01-1.37) 1.08 (0.90-1.30) 1.19 (1.03-1.38) 1.07 (0.82-1.39) 1.20 (1.05-1.37) 0.96 (0.76-1.22) 
    Q5 (9,354.8-502,928.3) 1.08 (0.95-1.22) 1.15 (0.99-1.35) 0.97 (0.80-1.18) 1.15 (0.99-1.33) 0.93 (0.71-1.23) 1.11 (0.97-1.28) 0.97 (0.76-1.23) 
    Ptrend P = 0.32 P = 0.10 P = 0.70 P = 0.09 P = 0.63 P = 0.37 P = 0.59 
DiMeIQx (ng/d)        
    Q2 (0.2-0.5) 1.01 (0.90-1.13) 1.05 (0.91-1.21) 0.95 (0.80-1.13) 1.01 (0.88-1.15) 0.88 (0.69-1.12) 1.00 (0.88-1.14) 1.04 (0.83-1.29) 
    Q3 (0.5-1.3) 0.98 (0.87-1.10) 1.06 (0.92-1.22) 0.86 (0.72-1.02) 1.04 (0.91-1.19) 0.81 (0.63-1.03) 1.03 (0.91-1.17) 0.81 (0.64-1.02) 
    Q4 (1.3-2.6) 1.10 (0.98-1.22) 1.18 (1.03-1.36) 0.98 (0.83-1.16) 1.11 (0.97-1.27) 1.01 (0.80-1.28) 1.10 (0.97-1.24) 1.08 (0.88-1.34) 
    Q5 (2.6-159.1) 1.05 (0.94-1.18) 1.11 (0.97-1.28) 0.97 (0.82-1.15) 1.11 (0.97-1.27) 0.88 (0.69-1.13) 1.08 (0.95-1.22) 0.99 (0.79-1.23) 
    Ptrend P = 0.24 P = 0.16 P = 0.80 P = 0.10 P = 0.73 P = 0.20 P = 0.82 
MeIQx (ng/d)        
    Q2 (7.0-14.3) 0.96 (0.85-1.08) 0.98 (0.84-1.13) 0.92 (0.77-1.11) 1.02 (0.88-1.17) 0.70 (0.54-0.90) 1.03 (0.90-1.17) 0.76 (0.59-0.96) 
    Q3 (14.3-25.4) 1.06 (0.95-1.19) 1.16 (1.01-1.35) 0.91 (0.76-1.10) 1.12 (0.98-1.30) 0.93 (0.73-1.19) 1.14 (0.99-1.30) 0.85 (0.67-1.07) 
    Q4 (25.4-46.3) 1.12 (1.00-1.26) 1.14 (0.98-1.33) 1.09 (0.91-1.31) 1.15 (1.00-1.33) 0.97 (0.76-1.25) 1.18 (1.03-1.35) 0.96 (0.77-1.21) 
    Q5 (46.3-1,230.8) 1.08 (0.95-1.23) 1.18 (1.01-1.38) 0.94 (0.77-1.14) 1.18 (1.01-1.38) 0.79 (0.60-1.04) 1.14 (0.99-1.32) 0.91 (0.71-1.16) 
    Ptrend P = 0.12 P = 0.03 P = 0.91 P = 0.03 P = 0.43 P = 0.12 P = 0.63 
PhIP (ng/d)        
    Q2 (16.8-40.0) 1.09 (0.97-1.23) 1.11 (0.95-1.28) 1.06 (0.89-1.28) 1.11 (0.96-1.29) 0.97 (0.75-1.25) 1.12 (0.98-1.28) 0.99 (0.78-1.26) 
    Q3 (40.1-86.1) 1.05 (0.93-1.18) 1.08 (0.93-1.25) 0.99 (0.82-1.19) 1.05 (0.91-1.22) 1.03 (0.80-1.33) 1.07 (0.93-1.22) 0.97 (0.77-1.22) 
    Q4 (86.1-222.0) 1.13 (1.00-1.28) 1.11 (0.95-1.29) 1.17 (0.97-1.40) 1.17 (1.01-1.35) 1.07 (0.83-1.38) 1.18 (1.03-1.35) 0.98 (0.77-1.24) 
    Q5 (222.1-13,334.8) 1.11 (0.98-1.25) 1.20 (1.04-1.40) 0.96 (0.79-1.16) 1.17 (1.01-1.35) 1.02 (0.79-1.33) 1.13 (0.98-1.29) 1.03 (0.81-1.31) 
    Ptrend P = 0.30 P = 0.03 P = 0.32 P = 0.11 P = 0.87 P = 0.37 P = 0.57 
Benzo(a)pyrene (ng/d)        
    Q2 (0.8-3.0) 1.13 (1.00-1.26) 1.13 (0.98-1.30) 1.13 (0.94-1.34) 1.09 (0.95-1.25) 1.19 (0.93-1.52) 1.16 (1.02-1.31) 1.03 (0.82-1.29) 
    Q3 (3.0-12.7) 1.10 (0.98-1.23) 1.10 (0.95-1.27) 1.09 (0.91-1.30) 1.12 (0.97-1.28) 1.04 (0.81-1.34) 1.09 (0.96-1.24) 1.11 (0.88-1.39) 
    Q4 (12.7-42.7) 1.00 (0.89-1.13) 1.01 (0.87-1.17) 0.99 (0.83-1.19) 1.03 (0.90-1.19) 0.87 (0.67-1.13) 1.02 (0.90-1.17) 0.93 (0.74-1.18) 
    Q5 (42.7-2,168.1) 1.15 (1.02-1.29) 1.18 (1.02-1.37) 1.08 (0.90-1.30) 1.18 (1.02-1.35) 1.12 (0.87-1.44) 1.17 (1.03-1.34) 1.06 (0.85-1.33) 
    Ptrend P = 0.16 P = 0.09 P = 0.90 P = 0.07 P = 0.73 P = 0.14 P = 0.79 
MutagenAll adenomas (n = 3,696)
Stage
Site*
Number of adenomas
OR (95% CI)Nonadvanced (n = 2,271)
Advanced (n = 1,425)Colon (n = 2,474)
Rectum (n = 688)Single (n = 2,796)
Multiple (n = 900)
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Mutagenicity        
    Q2 (1,091.0-2,419.5) 1.00 (0.88-1.12) 1.02 (0.88-1.19) 0.95 (0.79-1.14) 1.00 (0.87-1.16) 0.95 (0.73-1.22) 1.04 (0.91-1.19) 0.86 (0.67-1.09) 
    Q3 (2,419.8-4,507.8) 1.06 (0.95-1.20) 1.09 (0.94-1.27) 1.03 (0.85-1.23) 1.07 (0.93-1.24) 0.99 (0.77-1.28) 1.11 (0.98-1.27) 0.91 (0.72-1.16) 
    Q4 (4,509.8-9,352.9) 1.14 (1.01-1.28) 1.17 (1.01-1.37) 1.08 (0.90-1.30) 1.19 (1.03-1.38) 1.07 (0.82-1.39) 1.20 (1.05-1.37) 0.96 (0.76-1.22) 
    Q5 (9,354.8-502,928.3) 1.08 (0.95-1.22) 1.15 (0.99-1.35) 0.97 (0.80-1.18) 1.15 (0.99-1.33) 0.93 (0.71-1.23) 1.11 (0.97-1.28) 0.97 (0.76-1.23) 
    Ptrend P = 0.32 P = 0.10 P = 0.70 P = 0.09 P = 0.63 P = 0.37 P = 0.59 
DiMeIQx (ng/d)        
    Q2 (0.2-0.5) 1.01 (0.90-1.13) 1.05 (0.91-1.21) 0.95 (0.80-1.13) 1.01 (0.88-1.15) 0.88 (0.69-1.12) 1.00 (0.88-1.14) 1.04 (0.83-1.29) 
    Q3 (0.5-1.3) 0.98 (0.87-1.10) 1.06 (0.92-1.22) 0.86 (0.72-1.02) 1.04 (0.91-1.19) 0.81 (0.63-1.03) 1.03 (0.91-1.17) 0.81 (0.64-1.02) 
    Q4 (1.3-2.6) 1.10 (0.98-1.22) 1.18 (1.03-1.36) 0.98 (0.83-1.16) 1.11 (0.97-1.27) 1.01 (0.80-1.28) 1.10 (0.97-1.24) 1.08 (0.88-1.34) 
    Q5 (2.6-159.1) 1.05 (0.94-1.18) 1.11 (0.97-1.28) 0.97 (0.82-1.15) 1.11 (0.97-1.27) 0.88 (0.69-1.13) 1.08 (0.95-1.22) 0.99 (0.79-1.23) 
    Ptrend P = 0.24 P = 0.16 P = 0.80 P = 0.10 P = 0.73 P = 0.20 P = 0.82 
MeIQx (ng/d)        
    Q2 (7.0-14.3) 0.96 (0.85-1.08) 0.98 (0.84-1.13) 0.92 (0.77-1.11) 1.02 (0.88-1.17) 0.70 (0.54-0.90) 1.03 (0.90-1.17) 0.76 (0.59-0.96) 
    Q3 (14.3-25.4) 1.06 (0.95-1.19) 1.16 (1.01-1.35) 0.91 (0.76-1.10) 1.12 (0.98-1.30) 0.93 (0.73-1.19) 1.14 (0.99-1.30) 0.85 (0.67-1.07) 
    Q4 (25.4-46.3) 1.12 (1.00-1.26) 1.14 (0.98-1.33) 1.09 (0.91-1.31) 1.15 (1.00-1.33) 0.97 (0.76-1.25) 1.18 (1.03-1.35) 0.96 (0.77-1.21) 
    Q5 (46.3-1,230.8) 1.08 (0.95-1.23) 1.18 (1.01-1.38) 0.94 (0.77-1.14) 1.18 (1.01-1.38) 0.79 (0.60-1.04) 1.14 (0.99-1.32) 0.91 (0.71-1.16) 
    Ptrend P = 0.12 P = 0.03 P = 0.91 P = 0.03 P = 0.43 P = 0.12 P = 0.63 
PhIP (ng/d)        
    Q2 (16.8-40.0) 1.09 (0.97-1.23) 1.11 (0.95-1.28) 1.06 (0.89-1.28) 1.11 (0.96-1.29) 0.97 (0.75-1.25) 1.12 (0.98-1.28) 0.99 (0.78-1.26) 
    Q3 (40.1-86.1) 1.05 (0.93-1.18) 1.08 (0.93-1.25) 0.99 (0.82-1.19) 1.05 (0.91-1.22) 1.03 (0.80-1.33) 1.07 (0.93-1.22) 0.97 (0.77-1.22) 
    Q4 (86.1-222.0) 1.13 (1.00-1.28) 1.11 (0.95-1.29) 1.17 (0.97-1.40) 1.17 (1.01-1.35) 1.07 (0.83-1.38) 1.18 (1.03-1.35) 0.98 (0.77-1.24) 
    Q5 (222.1-13,334.8) 1.11 (0.98-1.25) 1.20 (1.04-1.40) 0.96 (0.79-1.16) 1.17 (1.01-1.35) 1.02 (0.79-1.33) 1.13 (0.98-1.29) 1.03 (0.81-1.31) 
    Ptrend P = 0.30 P = 0.03 P = 0.32 P = 0.11 P = 0.87 P = 0.37 P = 0.57 
Benzo(a)pyrene (ng/d)        
    Q2 (0.8-3.0) 1.13 (1.00-1.26) 1.13 (0.98-1.30) 1.13 (0.94-1.34) 1.09 (0.95-1.25) 1.19 (0.93-1.52) 1.16 (1.02-1.31) 1.03 (0.82-1.29) 
    Q3 (3.0-12.7) 1.10 (0.98-1.23) 1.10 (0.95-1.27) 1.09 (0.91-1.30) 1.12 (0.97-1.28) 1.04 (0.81-1.34) 1.09 (0.96-1.24) 1.11 (0.88-1.39) 
    Q4 (12.7-42.7) 1.00 (0.89-1.13) 1.01 (0.87-1.17) 0.99 (0.83-1.19) 1.03 (0.90-1.19) 0.87 (0.67-1.13) 1.02 (0.90-1.17) 0.93 (0.74-1.18) 
    Q5 (42.7-2,168.1) 1.15 (1.02-1.29) 1.18 (1.02-1.37) 1.08 (0.90-1.30) 1.18 (1.02-1.35) 1.12 (0.87-1.44) 1.17 (1.03-1.34) 1.06 (0.85-1.33) 
    Ptrend P = 0.16 P = 0.09 P = 0.90 P = 0.07 P = 0.73 P = 0.14 P = 0.79 
*

Five hundred thirty-four adenoma cases could not be strictly classified as one of these two subsites.

Models were adjusted for age, gender, screening center, energy intake (kcal/d, standard method for energy adjustment), ethnicity (American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian, Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, or Pacific Islander), educational attainment (<8 years school, 8-11 years school, 12 years school/high school equivalent, post–high school other than college, some college, college graduate, or postgraduate), tobacco use (never, smoked cigar or pipe, quit smoking 20+ years and smoked ≤1 pack/d, quit 20+ years and smoked >1 pack/d, quit <20 years and smoked ≤1 pack/d, quit <20 years and smoked >1 pack/d, or unknown), alcohol use (<1, ≥1-15, >15-30, or >30 g/d), use of aspirin and ibuprofen separately (no regular use, <2, 2-3, 4, 8, 12-16, 30, or 60 per month), vigorous physical activity (none, <1, 1, 2, 3, or 4+ h/wk), BMI (calculated as kg/m2), total folate intake (μg/d), calcium intake (mg/d), and dietary fiber intake (g/d).

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