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Table 2.

Meat intake and risk for colorectal adenoma

Meat type (quintiles)All adenoma (n = 3,696)
Type
Site*
Number
OR (95% CI)Nonadvanced (n = 2,271)
Advanced (n = 1,425)Colon (n = 2,474)
Rectum (n = 688)Single (n = 2,796)
Multiple (n = 900)
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Total meat (g/d)        
    Q2 (63.9-92.4) 0.91 (0.81-1.03) 0.89 (0.76-1.03) 0.94 (0.79-1.13) 0.94 (0.81-1.08) 0.95 (0.73-1.24) 0.93 (0.81-1.06) 0.85 (0.67-1.07) 
    Q3 (92.4-126.2) 0.96 (0.85-1.08) 1.00 (0.86-1.15) 0.89 (0.74-1.07) 0.95 (0.83-1.10) 1.11 (0.86-1.44) 1.00 (0.88-1.14) 0.82 (0.65-1.04) 
    Q4 (126.2-182.7) 1.07 (0.94-1.20) 1.04 (0.89-1.21) 1.10 (0.91-1.33) 1.06 (0.91-1.22) 1.27 (0.97-1.66) 1.10 (0.96-1.26) 0.97 (0.76-1.23) 
    Q5 (182.7-1212.7) 1.05 (0.92-1.22) 1.11 (0.93-1.33) 0.97 (0.78-1.21) 1.09 (0.92-1.30) 1.14 (0.83-1.57) 1.12 (0.95-1.32) 0.88 (0.66-1.15) 
    Ptrend P = 0.09 P = 0.05 P = 0.78 P = 0.08 P = 0.28 P = 0.04 P = 0.79 
Red meat (g/d)        
    Q2 (29.2-48.7) 0.95 (0.85-1.08) 0.98 (0.85-1.15) 0.90 (0.75-1.09) 0.96 (0.83-1.10) 0.98 (0.74-1.28) 1.00 (0.87-1.14) 0.82 (0.64-1.04) 
    Q3 (48.7-72.8) 0.97 (0.86-1.10) 1.02 (0.88-1.19) 0.89 (0.74-1.08) 0.94 (0.81-1.08) 1.15 (0.88-1.50) 1.04 (0.90-1.19) 0.78 (0.62-1.00) 
    Q4 (72.8-113.8) 1.07 (0.94-1.21) 1.11 (0.95-1.30) 1.00 (0.83-1.22) 1.06 (0.91-1.24) 1.30 (0.98-1.71) 1.17 (1.01-1.35) 0.81 (0.63-1.03) 
    Q5 (113.8-845.4) 1.07 (0.92-1.24) 1.10 (0.91-1.31) 1.03 (0.82-1.29) 1.09 (0.92-1.30) 1.14 (0.82-1.59) 1.12 (0.95-1.32) 0.91 (0.69-1.20) 
    Ptrend P = 0.13 P = 0.23 P = 0.29 P = 0.09 P = 0.38 P = 0.10 P = 0.81 
White meat (g/d)        
    Q2 (20.3-33.2) 1.04 (0.93-1.16) 1.03 (0.90-1.19) 1.05 (0.88-1.24) 1.03 (0.90-1.18) 1.18 (0.93-1.51) 1.09 (0.96-1.24) 0.91 (0.74-1.12) 
    Q3 (33.2-48.8) 1.00 (0.90-1.12) 0.95 (0.82-1.10) 1.09 (0.92-1.30) 1.03 (0.90-1.18) 0.99 (0.77-1.28) 1.07 (0.94-1.21) 0.84 (0.68-1.04) 
    Q4 (48.8-75.6) 0.97 (0.86-1.09) 0.99 (0.86-1.14) 0.92 (0.77-1.12) 0.99 (0.86-1.13) 1.00 (0.77-1.29) 0.99 (0.87-1.13) 0.91 (0.74-1.13) 
    Q5 (75.6-822.9) 1.03 (0.91-1.16) 1.02 (0.88-1.19) 1.03 (0.85-1.24) 1.02 (0.88-1.18) 1.16 (0.89-1.52) 1.09 (0.95-1.26) 0.84 (0.67-1.06) 
    Ptrend P = 0.94 P = 0.81 P = 0.84 P = 0.97 P = 0.53 P = 0.51 P = 0.31 
Red meat with known doneness level (g/d)        
    Q2 (8.7-16.9) 1.03 (0.91-1.17) 0.93 (0.80-1.09) 1.20 (0.98-1.46) 1.12 (0.96-1.30) 0.84 (0.64-1.10) 0.98 (0.85-1.12) 1.22 (0.95-1.57) 
    Q3 (16.9-28.4) 1.10 (0.97-1.25) 1.07 (0.91-1.25) 1.16 (0.94-1.43) 1.13 (0.97-1.33) 0.91 (0.68-1.20) 1.08 (0.94-1.25) 1.16 (0.88-1.51) 
    Q4 (28.4-48.2) 1.14 (1.00-1.31) 1.10 (0.93-1.30) 1.22 (0.99-1.52) 1.15 (0.97-1.35) 1.09 (0.81-1.45) 1.17 (1.01-1.37) 1.05 (0.80-1.39) 
    Q5 (48.2-510.7) 1.17 (1.00-1.35) 1.08 (0.90-1.31) 1.32 (1.04-1.67) 1.26 (1.05-1.50) 0.91 (0.66-1.27) 1.15 (0.97-1.36) 1.21 (0.90-1.62) 
    Ptrend P = 0.06 P = 0.24 P = 0.09 P = 0.04 P = 0.91 P = 0.06 P = 0.54 
Red meat cooked rare/medium (g/d)        
    Q2 (0.7-4.5) 1.02 (0.90-1.15) 1.01 (0.86-1.17) 1.04 (0.86-1.27) 1.02 (0.88-1.19) 0.98 (0.75-1.28) 1.09 (0.95-1.25) 0.79 (0.61-1.02) 
    Q3 (4.5-12.5) 1.06 (0.94-1.20) 1.06 (0.91-1.23) 1.06 (0.87-1.28) 1.06 (0.92-1.23) 0.94 (0.72-1.24) 1.03 (0.90-1.18) 1.15 (0.91-1.45) 
    Q4 (12.5-27.8) 1.08 (0.96-1.22) 1.07 (0.92-1.24) 1.11 (0.91-1.34) 1.08 (0.93-1.25) 1.12 (0.86-1.46) 1.14 (0.99-1.30) 0.93 (0.73-1.18) 
    Q5 (27.8-393.7) 1.12 (0.99-1.28) 1.10 (0.94-1.29) 1.17 (0.96-1.43) 1.13 (0.97-1.32) 1.06 (0.80-1.41) 1.13 (0.98-1.31) 1.09 (0.86-1.39) 
    Ptrend P = 0.06 P = 0.23 P = 0.10 P = 0.10 P = 0.46 P = 0.11 P = 0.28 
Red meat cooked well-done (g/d)        
    Q2 (2.8-5.9) 1.09 (0.97-1.23) 1.10 (0.95-1.28) 1.07 (0.89-1.29) 1.11 (0.96-1.28) 0.89 (0.69-1.15) 1.12 (0.98-1.28) 1.00 (0.79-1.26) 
    Q3 (5.9-10.7) 1.09 (0.97-1.23) 1.07 (0.92-1.24) 1.14 (0.95-1.37) 1.14 (0.99-1.32) 0.93 (0.72-1.20) 1.18 (1.04-1.35) 0.84 (0.66-1.07) 
    Q4 (10.7-20.1) 1.13 (1.00-1.28) 1.20 (1.03-1.39) 1.03 (0.85-1.25) 1.10 (0.95-1.28) 1.06 (0.82-1.37) 1.17 (1.02-1.34) 1.02 (0.80-1.28) 
    Q5 (20.1-510.7) 1.21 (1.06-1.37) 1.25 (1.07-1.47) 1.14 (0.93-1.40) 1.23 (1.05-1.44) 0.95 (0.71-1.26) 1.27 (1.10-1.47) 1.02 (0.79-1.31) 
    Ptrend P = 0.01 P = 0.01 P = 0.43 P = 0.04 P = 0.87 P = 0.01 P = 0.49 
Processed meat (g/d)        
    Q2 (3.8-7.9) 1.01 (0.90-1.15) 1.00 (0.86-1.17) 1.03 (0.85-1.25) 1.02 (0.88-1.18) 0.92 (0.71-1.20) 1.11 (0.96-1.27) 0.74 (0.58-0.96) 
    Q3 (7.9-14.3) 0.95 (0.84-1.08) 0.97 (0.83-1.14) 0.92 (0.75-1.13) 0.95 (0.81-1.10) 0.92 (0.70-1.20) 1.00 (0.87-1.16) 0.80 (0.62-1.03) 
    Q4 (14.3-26.8) 1.12 (0.98-1.27) 1.14 (0.97-1.34) 1.08 (0.88-1.32) 1.13 (0.96-1.32) 0.96 (0.72-1.27) 1.23 (1.06-1.42) 0.82 (0.63-1.05) 
    Q5 (26.8-367.1) 1.04 (0.90-1.19) 1.03 (0.86-1.23) 1.06 (0.85-1.32) 1.05 (0.89-1.25) 0.86 (0.63-1.17) 1.08 (0.92-1.27) 0.90 (0.69-1.17) 
    Ptrend P = 0.51 P = 0.71 P = 0.48 P = 0.46 P = 0.46 P = 0.66 P = 0.51 
Bacon/sausage (g/d)        
    Q2 (0.5-1.3) 1.08 (0.95-1.22) 1.01 (0.86-1.17) 1.21 (1.00-1.46) 1.16 (1.00-1.34) 0.76 (0.58-0.98) 1.07 (0.93-1.22) 1.12 (0.88-1.43) 
    Q3 (1.3-2.9) 1.02 (0.90-1.15) 0.99 (0.85-1.16) 1.06 (0.87-1.29) 1.08 (0.93-1.26) 0.83 (0.64-1.07) 1.05 (0.91-1.21) 0.92 (0.72-1.18) 
    Q4 (2.9-6.3) 1.01 (0.89-1.14) 0.96 (0.82-1.13) 1.10 (0.90-1.34) 1.09 (0.94-1.28) 0.72 (0.55-0.94) 1.07 (0.92-1.23) 0.84 (0.65-1.08) 
    Q5 (6.3-306.0) 1.14 (1.00-1.30) 1.15 (0.98-1.36) 1.13 (0.92-1.40) 1.20 (1.02-1.41) 0.86 (0.65-1.14) 1.15 (0.99-1.34) 1.11 (0.86-1.43) 
    Ptrend P = 0.03 P = 0.01 P = 0.56 P = 0.09 P = 0.75 P = 0.05 P = 0.22 
Meat type (quintiles)All adenoma (n = 3,696)
Type
Site*
Number
OR (95% CI)Nonadvanced (n = 2,271)
Advanced (n = 1,425)Colon (n = 2,474)
Rectum (n = 688)Single (n = 2,796)
Multiple (n = 900)
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Total meat (g/d)        
    Q2 (63.9-92.4) 0.91 (0.81-1.03) 0.89 (0.76-1.03) 0.94 (0.79-1.13) 0.94 (0.81-1.08) 0.95 (0.73-1.24) 0.93 (0.81-1.06) 0.85 (0.67-1.07) 
    Q3 (92.4-126.2) 0.96 (0.85-1.08) 1.00 (0.86-1.15) 0.89 (0.74-1.07) 0.95 (0.83-1.10) 1.11 (0.86-1.44) 1.00 (0.88-1.14) 0.82 (0.65-1.04) 
    Q4 (126.2-182.7) 1.07 (0.94-1.20) 1.04 (0.89-1.21) 1.10 (0.91-1.33) 1.06 (0.91-1.22) 1.27 (0.97-1.66) 1.10 (0.96-1.26) 0.97 (0.76-1.23) 
    Q5 (182.7-1212.7) 1.05 (0.92-1.22) 1.11 (0.93-1.33) 0.97 (0.78-1.21) 1.09 (0.92-1.30) 1.14 (0.83-1.57) 1.12 (0.95-1.32) 0.88 (0.66-1.15) 
    Ptrend P = 0.09 P = 0.05 P = 0.78 P = 0.08 P = 0.28 P = 0.04 P = 0.79 
Red meat (g/d)        
    Q2 (29.2-48.7) 0.95 (0.85-1.08) 0.98 (0.85-1.15) 0.90 (0.75-1.09) 0.96 (0.83-1.10) 0.98 (0.74-1.28) 1.00 (0.87-1.14) 0.82 (0.64-1.04) 
    Q3 (48.7-72.8) 0.97 (0.86-1.10) 1.02 (0.88-1.19) 0.89 (0.74-1.08) 0.94 (0.81-1.08) 1.15 (0.88-1.50) 1.04 (0.90-1.19) 0.78 (0.62-1.00) 
    Q4 (72.8-113.8) 1.07 (0.94-1.21) 1.11 (0.95-1.30) 1.00 (0.83-1.22) 1.06 (0.91-1.24) 1.30 (0.98-1.71) 1.17 (1.01-1.35) 0.81 (0.63-1.03) 
    Q5 (113.8-845.4) 1.07 (0.92-1.24) 1.10 (0.91-1.31) 1.03 (0.82-1.29) 1.09 (0.92-1.30) 1.14 (0.82-1.59) 1.12 (0.95-1.32) 0.91 (0.69-1.20) 
    Ptrend P = 0.13 P = 0.23 P = 0.29 P = 0.09 P = 0.38 P = 0.10 P = 0.81 
White meat (g/d)        
    Q2 (20.3-33.2) 1.04 (0.93-1.16) 1.03 (0.90-1.19) 1.05 (0.88-1.24) 1.03 (0.90-1.18) 1.18 (0.93-1.51) 1.09 (0.96-1.24) 0.91 (0.74-1.12) 
    Q3 (33.2-48.8) 1.00 (0.90-1.12) 0.95 (0.82-1.10) 1.09 (0.92-1.30) 1.03 (0.90-1.18) 0.99 (0.77-1.28) 1.07 (0.94-1.21) 0.84 (0.68-1.04) 
    Q4 (48.8-75.6) 0.97 (0.86-1.09) 0.99 (0.86-1.14) 0.92 (0.77-1.12) 0.99 (0.86-1.13) 1.00 (0.77-1.29) 0.99 (0.87-1.13) 0.91 (0.74-1.13) 
    Q5 (75.6-822.9) 1.03 (0.91-1.16) 1.02 (0.88-1.19) 1.03 (0.85-1.24) 1.02 (0.88-1.18) 1.16 (0.89-1.52) 1.09 (0.95-1.26) 0.84 (0.67-1.06) 
    Ptrend P = 0.94 P = 0.81 P = 0.84 P = 0.97 P = 0.53 P = 0.51 P = 0.31 
Red meat with known doneness level (g/d)        
    Q2 (8.7-16.9) 1.03 (0.91-1.17) 0.93 (0.80-1.09) 1.20 (0.98-1.46) 1.12 (0.96-1.30) 0.84 (0.64-1.10) 0.98 (0.85-1.12) 1.22 (0.95-1.57) 
    Q3 (16.9-28.4) 1.10 (0.97-1.25) 1.07 (0.91-1.25) 1.16 (0.94-1.43) 1.13 (0.97-1.33) 0.91 (0.68-1.20) 1.08 (0.94-1.25) 1.16 (0.88-1.51) 
    Q4 (28.4-48.2) 1.14 (1.00-1.31) 1.10 (0.93-1.30) 1.22 (0.99-1.52) 1.15 (0.97-1.35) 1.09 (0.81-1.45) 1.17 (1.01-1.37) 1.05 (0.80-1.39) 
    Q5 (48.2-510.7) 1.17 (1.00-1.35) 1.08 (0.90-1.31) 1.32 (1.04-1.67) 1.26 (1.05-1.50) 0.91 (0.66-1.27) 1.15 (0.97-1.36) 1.21 (0.90-1.62) 
    Ptrend P = 0.06 P = 0.24 P = 0.09 P = 0.04 P = 0.91 P = 0.06 P = 0.54 
Red meat cooked rare/medium (g/d)        
    Q2 (0.7-4.5) 1.02 (0.90-1.15) 1.01 (0.86-1.17) 1.04 (0.86-1.27) 1.02 (0.88-1.19) 0.98 (0.75-1.28) 1.09 (0.95-1.25) 0.79 (0.61-1.02) 
    Q3 (4.5-12.5) 1.06 (0.94-1.20) 1.06 (0.91-1.23) 1.06 (0.87-1.28) 1.06 (0.92-1.23) 0.94 (0.72-1.24) 1.03 (0.90-1.18) 1.15 (0.91-1.45) 
    Q4 (12.5-27.8) 1.08 (0.96-1.22) 1.07 (0.92-1.24) 1.11 (0.91-1.34) 1.08 (0.93-1.25) 1.12 (0.86-1.46) 1.14 (0.99-1.30) 0.93 (0.73-1.18) 
    Q5 (27.8-393.7) 1.12 (0.99-1.28) 1.10 (0.94-1.29) 1.17 (0.96-1.43) 1.13 (0.97-1.32) 1.06 (0.80-1.41) 1.13 (0.98-1.31) 1.09 (0.86-1.39) 
    Ptrend P = 0.06 P = 0.23 P = 0.10 P = 0.10 P = 0.46 P = 0.11 P = 0.28 
Red meat cooked well-done (g/d)        
    Q2 (2.8-5.9) 1.09 (0.97-1.23) 1.10 (0.95-1.28) 1.07 (0.89-1.29) 1.11 (0.96-1.28) 0.89 (0.69-1.15) 1.12 (0.98-1.28) 1.00 (0.79-1.26) 
    Q3 (5.9-10.7) 1.09 (0.97-1.23) 1.07 (0.92-1.24) 1.14 (0.95-1.37) 1.14 (0.99-1.32) 0.93 (0.72-1.20) 1.18 (1.04-1.35) 0.84 (0.66-1.07) 
    Q4 (10.7-20.1) 1.13 (1.00-1.28) 1.20 (1.03-1.39) 1.03 (0.85-1.25) 1.10 (0.95-1.28) 1.06 (0.82-1.37) 1.17 (1.02-1.34) 1.02 (0.80-1.28) 
    Q5 (20.1-510.7) 1.21 (1.06-1.37) 1.25 (1.07-1.47) 1.14 (0.93-1.40) 1.23 (1.05-1.44) 0.95 (0.71-1.26) 1.27 (1.10-1.47) 1.02 (0.79-1.31) 
    Ptrend P = 0.01 P = 0.01 P = 0.43 P = 0.04 P = 0.87 P = 0.01 P = 0.49 
Processed meat (g/d)        
    Q2 (3.8-7.9) 1.01 (0.90-1.15) 1.00 (0.86-1.17) 1.03 (0.85-1.25) 1.02 (0.88-1.18) 0.92 (0.71-1.20) 1.11 (0.96-1.27) 0.74 (0.58-0.96) 
    Q3 (7.9-14.3) 0.95 (0.84-1.08) 0.97 (0.83-1.14) 0.92 (0.75-1.13) 0.95 (0.81-1.10) 0.92 (0.70-1.20) 1.00 (0.87-1.16) 0.80 (0.62-1.03) 
    Q4 (14.3-26.8) 1.12 (0.98-1.27) 1.14 (0.97-1.34) 1.08 (0.88-1.32) 1.13 (0.96-1.32) 0.96 (0.72-1.27) 1.23 (1.06-1.42) 0.82 (0.63-1.05) 
    Q5 (26.8-367.1) 1.04 (0.90-1.19) 1.03 (0.86-1.23) 1.06 (0.85-1.32) 1.05 (0.89-1.25) 0.86 (0.63-1.17) 1.08 (0.92-1.27) 0.90 (0.69-1.17) 
    Ptrend P = 0.51 P = 0.71 P = 0.48 P = 0.46 P = 0.46 P = 0.66 P = 0.51 
Bacon/sausage (g/d)        
    Q2 (0.5-1.3) 1.08 (0.95-1.22) 1.01 (0.86-1.17) 1.21 (1.00-1.46) 1.16 (1.00-1.34) 0.76 (0.58-0.98) 1.07 (0.93-1.22) 1.12 (0.88-1.43) 
    Q3 (1.3-2.9) 1.02 (0.90-1.15) 0.99 (0.85-1.16) 1.06 (0.87-1.29) 1.08 (0.93-1.26) 0.83 (0.64-1.07) 1.05 (0.91-1.21) 0.92 (0.72-1.18) 
    Q4 (2.9-6.3) 1.01 (0.89-1.14) 0.96 (0.82-1.13) 1.10 (0.90-1.34) 1.09 (0.94-1.28) 0.72 (0.55-0.94) 1.07 (0.92-1.23) 0.84 (0.65-1.08) 
    Q5 (6.3-306.0) 1.14 (1.00-1.30) 1.15 (0.98-1.36) 1.13 (0.92-1.40) 1.20 (1.02-1.41) 0.86 (0.65-1.14) 1.15 (0.99-1.34) 1.11 (0.86-1.43) 
    Ptrend P = 0.03 P = 0.01 P = 0.56 P = 0.09 P = 0.75 P = 0.05 P = 0.22 
*

Five hundred thirty-four adenoma cases could not be strictly classified as one of these two subsites.

Models were adjusted for age, gender, screening center, energy intake (kcal/d, standard method for energy adjustment), ethnicity (American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian, Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, or Pacific Islander), educational attainment (<8 years school, 8-11 years school, 12 years school/high school equivalent, post–high school other than college, some college, college graduate, or postgraduate), tobacco use (never, smoked cigar or pipe, quit smoking 20+ years and smoked ≤1 pack/d, quit 20+ years and smoked >1 pack/d, quit <20 years and smoked ≤1 pack/d, quit <20 years and smoked >1 pack/d, or unknown), alcohol use (<1, ≥1-15, >15-30, or >30 g/d), use of aspirin and ibuprofen separately (no regular use, <2, 2-3, 4, 8, 12-16, 30, or 60 per month), vigorous physical activity (none, <1, 1, 2, 3, or 4+ hours/wk), BMI (calculated as kg/m2), total folate intake (μg/d), calcium intake (mg/d), and dietary fiber intake (g/d).

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