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Table 1

Candidate normalization genes evaluated in this study

SymbolGene nameAccession no.aLocus linkFunctionLocationbPseudo-genescTissued
FLOT2 Flotillin 2 NM_004475.1 2319 May act as a scaffolding protein within caveolar membranes. May be involved in epidermal cell adhesion and epidermal structure and function. 17q11.2 No 
ATP5B ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, β polypeptide NM_001686.1 506 Produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane. The β chain is the catalytic subunit. 12q13.3 Yes 
HSPCB Heat shock 90-kDa protein 1, β ENST00000265413 3326 Molecular chaperone. Has ATPase activity (by similarity). 6p21.1 Yes 
S100A6 S100 calcium-binding protein A6 (calcyclin) ENST00000292162 6277 May function in stimulation of Ca2+-dependent insulin release, stimulation of prolactin secretion, and exocytosis. 1q21.3 Yes 
TEGT Testis enhanced gene transcript (BAX inhibitor 1) ENST00000267115 7009 Suppressor of apoptosis 12q13.12 No 
CFL1 Cofilin 1 (non-muscle) ENST00000308162 1072 Controls reversibly actin polymerization and depolymerization. It is the major component of intranuclear and cytoplasmic actin rods. 11q13.1 Yes B and C 
FLJ20030 Hypothetical protein FLJ20030 ENST00000218328 54789 Unknown Xp11.22 No B and C 
TPT1 Tumor protein, translationally controlled 1 ENST00000255477 7178 Unknown 13q14.13 Yes B and C 
UBB              e Ubiquitin B NM_018955.1 7314 Protein degradation 17p11.2 Yes B and C 
UBC              e Ubiquitin C ENST00000280590 7316 Protein degradation 12q24.31 Yes B and C 
RPS13              f Ribosomal protein S13 NM_001017.2 6207 Encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 40S subunit 11p15.1 Yes B and C 
RPS23              f Ribosomal protein S23 NM_001025.1 6228 Encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 40S subunit 5q14.2 Yes B and C 
GAPD Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase NM_002046 2597 Catalyzes the reversible oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate 12p13.31 Yes B and C 
ACTB Actin, β NM_001101.2 60 Cytoskeletal structural protein involved in various types of cell motility 7p22.1 Yes B and C 
CLTC Clathrin, heavy polypeptide (Hc) NM_004859.1 1213 Clathrin is the major protein of the polyhedral coat of coated pits and vesicles. 17q23.2 Yes 
NACA Nascent-polypeptide-associated complex alpha polypeptide ENST00000228312 4666 The nascent-polypeptide-associated complex binds newly synthesized polypeptide chains as they emerge from the ribosome and prevents them from being incorrectly translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum 12q13.3 Yes 
SUI1 Putative translation initiation factor ENST0000031083 10209 May act as a negative growth regulator 17q21.2 Yes 
TUBA6 Tubulin alpha 6 ENST00000301072 84790 Cytoskeletal structural protein 12q13.12 Yes 
SymbolGene nameAccession no.aLocus linkFunctionLocationbPseudo-genescTissued
FLOT2 Flotillin 2 NM_004475.1 2319 May act as a scaffolding protein within caveolar membranes. May be involved in epidermal cell adhesion and epidermal structure and function. 17q11.2 No 
ATP5B ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, β polypeptide NM_001686.1 506 Produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane. The β chain is the catalytic subunit. 12q13.3 Yes 
HSPCB Heat shock 90-kDa protein 1, β ENST00000265413 3326 Molecular chaperone. Has ATPase activity (by similarity). 6p21.1 Yes 
S100A6 S100 calcium-binding protein A6 (calcyclin) ENST00000292162 6277 May function in stimulation of Ca2+-dependent insulin release, stimulation of prolactin secretion, and exocytosis. 1q21.3 Yes 
TEGT Testis enhanced gene transcript (BAX inhibitor 1) ENST00000267115 7009 Suppressor of apoptosis 12q13.12 No 
CFL1 Cofilin 1 (non-muscle) ENST00000308162 1072 Controls reversibly actin polymerization and depolymerization. It is the major component of intranuclear and cytoplasmic actin rods. 11q13.1 Yes B and C 
FLJ20030 Hypothetical protein FLJ20030 ENST00000218328 54789 Unknown Xp11.22 No B and C 
TPT1 Tumor protein, translationally controlled 1 ENST00000255477 7178 Unknown 13q14.13 Yes B and C 
UBB              e Ubiquitin B NM_018955.1 7314 Protein degradation 17p11.2 Yes B and C 
UBC              e Ubiquitin C ENST00000280590 7316 Protein degradation 12q24.31 Yes B and C 
RPS13              f Ribosomal protein S13 NM_001017.2 6207 Encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 40S subunit 11p15.1 Yes B and C 
RPS23              f Ribosomal protein S23 NM_001025.1 6228 Encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 40S subunit 5q14.2 Yes B and C 
GAPD Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase NM_002046 2597 Catalyzes the reversible oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate 12p13.31 Yes B and C 
ACTB Actin, β NM_001101.2 60 Cytoskeletal structural protein involved in various types of cell motility 7p22.1 Yes B and C 
CLTC Clathrin, heavy polypeptide (Hc) NM_004859.1 1213 Clathrin is the major protein of the polyhedral coat of coated pits and vesicles. 17q23.2 Yes 
NACA Nascent-polypeptide-associated complex alpha polypeptide ENST00000228312 4666 The nascent-polypeptide-associated complex binds newly synthesized polypeptide chains as they emerge from the ribosome and prevents them from being incorrectly translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum 12q13.3 Yes 
SUI1 Putative translation initiation factor ENST0000031083 10209 May act as a negative growth regulator 17q21.2 Yes 
TUBA6 Tubulin alpha 6 ENST00000301072 84790 Cytoskeletal structural protein 12q13.12 Yes 
a

Primer design based on this sequence. The database sources are the NCBI Reference Sequence database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/RefSeq/) and the Ensembl database (http://www.ensembl.org/).

b

Ensembl cytogenetic band.

c

Determined by BLAT search of Human June 2002 Freeze (Ref. 14).

d

Identified from bladder (B) and colon (C).

e

Genes belonging to the same functional class.

f

Genes belonging to the same functional class.

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