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Table 6

Gene-gene interaction and gene-gene-environment interaction of NAT1 and NAT2 genotypes

Environmental risk (no. of cases/controls)aNAT2 genotypeNAT1 genotypebCases %Controls %Odds ratioc95% CIP
 Slow All 63.2 56.7 1.35 1.00–1.84 0.051 
(425/337) Rapid All 36.8 43.3 1.00d   
 Slow NAT1*4 47.3 41.2 2.09 1.36–3.22 0.001 
(425/337) Rapid NAT1*10 12.5 21.7 1.00d   
Smoking Slow NAT1*4 50.5 40.9 2.06 1.26–3.36 0.004 
(297/254) Rapid NAT1*10 13.1 21.7 1.00d   
Nonsmoking Slow NAT1*4 37.2 42.7 2.37 0.92–6.06 0.07 
(121/82) Rapid NAT1*10 10.7 22.0 1.00d   
Smoking vs. nonsmoking     1.81 1.22–2.69 0.003 
Occupational exposure Slow NAT1*4 46.8 36.5 2.42 0.99–5.56 0.054 
(156/63) Rapid NAT1*10 10.9 19.9 1.00d   
No occupational exposure Slow NAT1*4 46.5 42.5 1.90 1.14–3.17 0.014 
(260/252) Rapid NAT1*10 13.5 23.0 1.00d   
Occupational exposure vs. no occupational exposure     5.96 2.96–12.0 <0.0001 
Occupational exposure + smoking Slow NAT1*4 50.8 33.3 2.58 0.93–7.09 0.067 
(126/51) Rapid NAT1*10 11.9 19.6 1.00d   
No occupational exposure + nonsmoking Slow NAT1*4 39.6 41.9 2.14 0.78–5.86 0.14 
(91/62) Rapid NAT1*10 12.1 24.2 1.00d   
Occupational exposure + smoking vs. no occupational exposure + nonsmoking     4.15 1.95–8.83 0.0002 
Environmental risk (no. of cases/controls)aNAT2 genotypeNAT1 genotypebCases %Controls %Odds ratioc95% CIP
 Slow All 63.2 56.7 1.35 1.00–1.84 0.051 
(425/337) Rapid All 36.8 43.3 1.00d   
 Slow NAT1*4 47.3 41.2 2.09 1.36–3.22 0.001 
(425/337) Rapid NAT1*10 12.5 21.7 1.00d   
Smoking Slow NAT1*4 50.5 40.9 2.06 1.26–3.36 0.004 
(297/254) Rapid NAT1*10 13.1 21.7 1.00d   
Nonsmoking Slow NAT1*4 37.2 42.7 2.37 0.92–6.06 0.07 
(121/82) Rapid NAT1*10 10.7 22.0 1.00d   
Smoking vs. nonsmoking     1.81 1.22–2.69 0.003 
Occupational exposure Slow NAT1*4 46.8 36.5 2.42 0.99–5.56 0.054 
(156/63) Rapid NAT1*10 10.9 19.9 1.00d   
No occupational exposure Slow NAT1*4 46.5 42.5 1.90 1.14–3.17 0.014 
(260/252) Rapid NAT1*10 13.5 23.0 1.00d   
Occupational exposure vs. no occupational exposure     5.96 2.96–12.0 <0.0001 
Occupational exposure + smoking Slow NAT1*4 50.8 33.3 2.58 0.93–7.09 0.067 
(126/51) Rapid NAT1*10 11.9 19.6 1.00d   
No occupational exposure + nonsmoking Slow NAT1*4 39.6 41.9 2.14 0.78–5.86 0.14 
(91/62) Rapid NAT1*10 12.1 24.2 1.00d   
Occupational exposure + smoking vs. no occupational exposure + nonsmoking     4.15 1.95–8.83 0.0002 
a

History of occupational exposure or smoking was lacking in some subjects.

b

NAT1*4 genotypes summarize all genotypes, but *10, NAT1*10 comprises hetero- and homozygotes.

c

Adjusted for age and gender.

d

Reference.

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