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Table 3

Urinary estrogen metabolite ratiosa

Baseline (n = 18)Control (n = 18)Low-Iso (n = 17)bHigh-Iso (n = 18)
Genotoxic:Total 0.16 ± 0.01c 0.14 ± 0.01d 0.12 ± 0.01d 0.13 ± 0.01d 
2-(OH)E1:16α-(OH)E1e 3.82 ± 0.33 4.54 ± 0.37 5.09 ± 0.38 5.13 ± 0.37 
 3.13 (2.51–3.90)c 3.95 (3.38–4.62)c,d 4.39 (3.73–5.16)d 4.03 (3.45–4.72)c,d 
2E1-total:16α-total 1.33 ± 0.08 1.51 ± 0.07 1.56 ± 0.07 1.53 ± 0.07 
2E1-total:4E1-total 4.13 ± 0.12c 5.16 ± 0.31d 6.25 ± 0.33f 5.90 ± 0.31d,f 
2E2-total:4E2-total 3.29 ± 0.19c 3.91 ± 0.30d 3.72 ± 0.32c,d 3.84 ± 0.30c,d 
2-total:4-total 3.80 ± 0.11c 4.67 ± 0.24d 5.14 ± 0.25d 5.05 ± 0.24d 
Baseline (n = 18)Control (n = 18)Low-Iso (n = 17)bHigh-Iso (n = 18)
Genotoxic:Total 0.16 ± 0.01c 0.14 ± 0.01d 0.12 ± 0.01d 0.13 ± 0.01d 
2-(OH)E1:16α-(OH)E1e 3.82 ± 0.33 4.54 ± 0.37 5.09 ± 0.38 5.13 ± 0.37 
 3.13 (2.51–3.90)c 3.95 (3.38–4.62)c,d 4.39 (3.73–5.16)d 4.03 (3.45–4.72)c,d 
2E1-total:16α-total 1.33 ± 0.08 1.51 ± 0.07 1.56 ± 0.07 1.53 ± 0.07 
2E1-total:4E1-total 4.13 ± 0.12c 5.16 ± 0.31d 6.25 ± 0.33f 5.90 ± 0.31d,f 
2E2-total:4E2-total 3.29 ± 0.19c 3.91 ± 0.30d 3.72 ± 0.32c,d 3.84 ± 0.30c,d 
2-total:4-total 3.80 ± 0.11c 4.67 ± 0.24d 5.14 ± 0.25d 5.05 ± 0.24d 
a

Least squares mean ±SE. Within a row, means not sharing a superscript (c, d, or f) are significantly different (P <0.05). Genotoxic:Total, [16α-(OH)E1 +4-(OH)E2 + 4-(OH)E1]/total estrogens;2E1-total:16α-total, [2-(OH)E1 +2-MeOE1]:[16α-(OH)E1 +E3 + 17-epiE3];2E1-total:4E1-total,[2-(OH)E1 +2-MeOE1]:[4-(OH)E1 +4-MeOE1]; 2E2-total:4E2-total,[2-(OH)E2 +2-MeOE2]:4-(OH)E2; 2-total:4-total,[2-(OH)E1 + 2-(OH)E2 +2-MeOE1 +2-MeOE2]:[4-(OH)E1 +4-(OH)E2 + 4-MeOE1]. Only trace amounts of 4-MeOE2 were found, and data were not included in the calculation of ratios.

b

One subject did not collect urine samples at the end of low-iso diet period.

e

Because of unequal variance, data were log-transformed before ANOVA. Geometric means (95% confidence intervals) are presented below the least squares means.

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