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Table 2

Urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites (nmol/24 h)a

Baseline (n = 18)Control (n = 18)Low-Iso (n = 17)bHigh-Iso (n = 18)
E2c 2.94 ± 0.19 3.92 ± 0.25 4.14 ± 0.26 3.97 ± 0.25 
 2.71 (2.44–3.02)d 3.55 (3.08–4.09)e 3.43 (2.96–3.97)e 3.35 (2.91–3.86)e 
E1c 5.28 ± 0.34 6.26 ± 0.40 6.52 ± 0.42 5.69 ± 0.40 
 4.32 (3.79–4.93)d 5.17 (4.59–5.81)d,e 5.18 (4.58–5.86)e 4.46 (3.97–5.02)d,e 
E3 5.17 ± 0.40 5.07 ± 0.30 5.03 ± 0.31 4.52 ± 0.30 
16α-(OH)E1 2.27 ± 0.29 2.30 ± 0.23 1.92 ± 0.24 2.14 ± 0.23 
4-(OH)E2 0.78 ± 0.02 0.77 ± 0.04 0.78 ± 0.04 0.73 ± 0.04 
4-(OH)E1c 2.21 ± 0.14 1.93 ± 0.10 1.63 ± 0.10 1.51 ± 0.10 
 1.64 (1.48–1.81)d 1.52 (1.36–1.70)d 1.27 (1.13–1.42)e 1.25 (1.12–1.39)e 
2-(OH)E2c 2.37 ± 0.14 2.92 ± 0.29 2.70 ± 0.31 2.86 ± 0.29 
 1.93 (1.70–2.20)d 2.48 (2.16–2.85)e 2.21 (1.92–2.56)d,e 2.16 (1.88–2.47)d,e 
2-(OH)E1c 7.81 ± 0.37 9.34 ± 0.71 9.92 ± 0.75 9.93 ± 0.71 
 5.88 (5.40–6.41)d 7.13 (6.41–7.92)e 7.17 (6.43–8.00)e 6.83 (6.15–7.60)e 
4-MeOE1 0.21 ± 0.08 0.20 ± 0.08 0.19 ± 0.08 0.19 ± 0.07 
2-MeOE2 1.42 ± 0.09 1.53 ± 0.11 1.32 ± 0.11 1.59 ± 0.11 
2-MeOE1c 2.09 ± 0.11 2.45 ± 0.11 2.52 ± 0.11 2.50 ± 0.11 
 1.77 (1.61–1.94)d 2.06 (1.86–2.29)e 1.99 (1.79–2.22)d,e 1.97 (1.78–2.19)d,e 
16-ketoE2 1.87 ± 0.12 1.79 ± 0.12 1.71 ± 0.12 1.82 ± 0.12 
17-epiE3 0.85 ± 0.03 0.83 ± 0.06 0.96 ± 0.06 0.87 ± 0.06 
16-epiE3 1.67 ± 0.11 1.71 ± 0.09 1.68 ± 0.09 1.84 ± 0.09 
Total estrogensc 33.2 ± 1.3 37.0 ± 1.7 37.5 ± 1.8 35.9 ± 1.7 
 29.6 (27.5–32.0) 32.7 (30.1–35.5) 32.3 (29.6–35.2) 30.4 (28.0–33.0) 
Baseline (n = 18)Control (n = 18)Low-Iso (n = 17)bHigh-Iso (n = 18)
E2c 2.94 ± 0.19 3.92 ± 0.25 4.14 ± 0.26 3.97 ± 0.25 
 2.71 (2.44–3.02)d 3.55 (3.08–4.09)e 3.43 (2.96–3.97)e 3.35 (2.91–3.86)e 
E1c 5.28 ± 0.34 6.26 ± 0.40 6.52 ± 0.42 5.69 ± 0.40 
 4.32 (3.79–4.93)d 5.17 (4.59–5.81)d,e 5.18 (4.58–5.86)e 4.46 (3.97–5.02)d,e 
E3 5.17 ± 0.40 5.07 ± 0.30 5.03 ± 0.31 4.52 ± 0.30 
16α-(OH)E1 2.27 ± 0.29 2.30 ± 0.23 1.92 ± 0.24 2.14 ± 0.23 
4-(OH)E2 0.78 ± 0.02 0.77 ± 0.04 0.78 ± 0.04 0.73 ± 0.04 
4-(OH)E1c 2.21 ± 0.14 1.93 ± 0.10 1.63 ± 0.10 1.51 ± 0.10 
 1.64 (1.48–1.81)d 1.52 (1.36–1.70)d 1.27 (1.13–1.42)e 1.25 (1.12–1.39)e 
2-(OH)E2c 2.37 ± 0.14 2.92 ± 0.29 2.70 ± 0.31 2.86 ± 0.29 
 1.93 (1.70–2.20)d 2.48 (2.16–2.85)e 2.21 (1.92–2.56)d,e 2.16 (1.88–2.47)d,e 
2-(OH)E1c 7.81 ± 0.37 9.34 ± 0.71 9.92 ± 0.75 9.93 ± 0.71 
 5.88 (5.40–6.41)d 7.13 (6.41–7.92)e 7.17 (6.43–8.00)e 6.83 (6.15–7.60)e 
4-MeOE1 0.21 ± 0.08 0.20 ± 0.08 0.19 ± 0.08 0.19 ± 0.07 
2-MeOE2 1.42 ± 0.09 1.53 ± 0.11 1.32 ± 0.11 1.59 ± 0.11 
2-MeOE1c 2.09 ± 0.11 2.45 ± 0.11 2.52 ± 0.11 2.50 ± 0.11 
 1.77 (1.61–1.94)d 2.06 (1.86–2.29)e 1.99 (1.79–2.22)d,e 1.97 (1.78–2.19)d,e 
16-ketoE2 1.87 ± 0.12 1.79 ± 0.12 1.71 ± 0.12 1.82 ± 0.12 
17-epiE3 0.85 ± 0.03 0.83 ± 0.06 0.96 ± 0.06 0.87 ± 0.06 
16-epiE3 1.67 ± 0.11 1.71 ± 0.09 1.68 ± 0.09 1.84 ± 0.09 
Total estrogensc 33.2 ± 1.3 37.0 ± 1.7 37.5 ± 1.8 35.9 ± 1.7 
 29.6 (27.5–32.0) 32.7 (30.1–35.5) 32.3 (29.6–35.2) 30.4 (28.0–33.0) 
a

Least squares mean ±SE. Within a row, means not sharing a superscript (d or e) are significantly different (P < 0.05). When data were analyzed as nmol estrogen metabolite/mmol urinary creatinine, the same results were obtained. Only trace amounts of 4-MeOE2 were found in the samples of these postmenopausal women.

b

One subject did not collect urine samples at the end of the low-iso diet period.

c

Because of unequal variance, data were log-transformed before ANOVA. Geometric means (95% confidence intervals) are presented below the least squares means.

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