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Table 1.

Sample characteristics as a function of wave 3 smoking status in SCS-I

Never smokersFormer smokersCurrent smokers
Total N = 2,938n = 1,457 (49.6%)n = 1,209 (41.2%)n = 272 (9.3%)
n(%)/M(SD)n(%)/M(SD)n(%)/M(SD)n(%)/M(SD)χ2/F testP
Sociodemographic variables 
Race 
 Caucasian/White 2,700 (91.9) 1,326 (91.0) 1,125 (93.1) 249 (91.5) χ2(4, 2,937) = 8.5 0.075 
 African-American/Black 175 (6.0) 91 (6.2) 63 (5.2) 21 (7.7)   
 Other 62 (2.1) 39 (2.7) 21 (1.7) 2 (0.7)   
Gender 
 Male 1,175 (40.0) 438 (30.1) 626 (51.8) 111 (40.8) χ2(2, 2,938) = 129.9 0.000 
 Female 1,763 (60.0) 1,019 (69.9) 583 (48.2) 161 (59.2)   
Education 
 High school or less 973 (33.1) 440 (30.2) 421 (34.8) 112 (41.2) χ2(2, 2,928) = 16.3 0.000 
 Post-secondary 1,955 (66.5) 1,013 (69.5) 787 (65.1) 155 (57.0)   
Marital status 
 Not married 848 (28.9) 408 (28.0) 345 (28.5) 95 (34.9) χ2(2, 2,935) = 5.4 0.067 
 Married 2,087 (71.0) 1,047 (71.9) 863 (71.4) 177 (65.1)   
Income 
 Less than $19,999 331 (11.3) 154 (10.6) 121 (10.0) 56 (20.6) χ2(6, 2,492) = 38.0 0.000 
 $20,000–$39,999 559 (19.0) 253 (17.4) 248 (20.5) 58 (21.3)   
 $40,000–$74,999 842 (28.7) 399 (27.4) 363 (30.0) 80 (29.4)   
 $75,000 or more 760 (25.9) 412 (28.3) 300 (24.8) 48 (17.6)   
Age 65.5 (11.1) 64.4a (11.7) 67.7b (10.9) 61.8c (8.8) F(2, 2,937) = 45.8 0.000 
Cancer-related variables 
SEER stage 
In situ 77 (2.6) 24 (1.6) 39 (3.2) 14 (5.1) χ2(6, 2,938) = 15.9 0.014 
 Localized 1,990 (67.7) 988 (67.8) 829 (68.6) 173 (63.6)   
 Regional 697 (23.7) 356 (24.4) 273 (22.6) 68 (25.0)   
 Distant 174 (5.9) 89 (6.1) 68 (5.6) 17 (6.2)   
Cancer recurrence in the past 5 years 
 Yes 214 (7.3) 90 (6.2) 96 (7.9) 28 (10.3) χ2(2, 2,938) = 7.1 0.029 
 No 2,724 (92.7) 1,367 (93.8) 1,113 (92.1) 244 (89.7)   
Cancer metastasized in the past 5 years 
 Yes 98 (3.3) 47 (3.2) 37 (3.1) 14 (5.1) χ2(2, 2,938) = 3.1 0.212 
 No 2,840 (96.7) 1,410 (96.8) 1,172 (96.9) 258 (94.9)   
New cancer diagnosis in the past 5 years 
 Yes 236 (8.0) 104 (7.1) 111 (9.2) 21 (7.7) χ2(2, 2,938) = 3.8 0.152 
 No 2,702 (92.0) 1,353 (92.9) 1,098 (90.8) 251 (92.3)   
Cancer treatment in the past 5 years 
 Yes 551 (18.8) 243 (16.7) 253 (20.9) 55 (20.2) χ2(2, 2,938) = 8.2 0.016 
 No 2,387 (81.2) 1,214 (83.3) 956 (79.1) 217 (79.8)   
Cancer smoking related 
 Yes 830 (28.3) 344 (23.6) 404 (33.4) 82 (30.1) χ2(2, 2,938) = 31.9 0.000 
 No 2,108 (71.7) 1,113 (76.4) 805 (66.6) 190 (69.9)   
Years since diagnosis 8.9 (0.7) 8.9 (0.7) 8.9 (0.7) 9.0 (0.7) F(2, 2,937) = 1.9 0.094 
Other health-related variables 
Mental health treatment in the past 5 years 
 Yes 624 (21.2) 276 (18.9) 264 (21.8) 84 (30.9) χ2(2, 2,938) = 20.0 0.000 
 No 2,314 (78.8) 1,181 (81.1) 945 (79.2) 188 (69.1)   
Alcohol abuse treatment in the past 5 years 
 Yes 8 (0.3) 2 (0.1) 3 (0.2) 3 (1.1) χ2(2, 2,938) = 7.9 0.019 
 No 2,930 (99.7) 1,455 (99.9) 1,206 (99.8) 269 (98.9)   
Alcohol frequency 
 1 d/wk or less 2,138 (72.7) 1,163 (79.8) 790 (65.3) 185 (68.0) χ2(2, 2,915) = 72.3 0.000 
 2 d/wk or more 777 (26.4) 285 (19.6) 407 (33.7) 85 (31.3)   
Alcohol quantity 
 None 1,210 (41.2) 700 (48.0) 417 (34.5) 93 (34.2) χ2(4, 2,887) = 117.0 0.000 
 1 drink/d 980 (33.4) 495 (34.0) 418 (34.6) 67 (24.6)   
 2 or more drinks/d 697 (23.7) 238 (16.3) 351 (29.0) 108 (39.7)   
Physical functioning 46.4 (10.4) 47.5a (10.1) 45.6b (10.2) 43.9c (11.6) F(2, 2,937) = 20.71 0.000 
Comorbid conditions 2.5 (2.1) 2.4a (2.1) 2.7b (2.1) 2.4a,b (2.1) F(2, 2,937) = 8.84 0.000 
BMI 28.7 (6.1) 28.8a (6.6) 28.8a (5.7) 27.3b (5.5) F(2, 2,893) = 7.56 0.001 
Never smokersFormer smokersCurrent smokers
Total N = 2,938n = 1,457 (49.6%)n = 1,209 (41.2%)n = 272 (9.3%)
n(%)/M(SD)n(%)/M(SD)n(%)/M(SD)n(%)/M(SD)χ2/F testP
Sociodemographic variables 
Race 
 Caucasian/White 2,700 (91.9) 1,326 (91.0) 1,125 (93.1) 249 (91.5) χ2(4, 2,937) = 8.5 0.075 
 African-American/Black 175 (6.0) 91 (6.2) 63 (5.2) 21 (7.7)   
 Other 62 (2.1) 39 (2.7) 21 (1.7) 2 (0.7)   
Gender 
 Male 1,175 (40.0) 438 (30.1) 626 (51.8) 111 (40.8) χ2(2, 2,938) = 129.9 0.000 
 Female 1,763 (60.0) 1,019 (69.9) 583 (48.2) 161 (59.2)   
Education 
 High school or less 973 (33.1) 440 (30.2) 421 (34.8) 112 (41.2) χ2(2, 2,928) = 16.3 0.000 
 Post-secondary 1,955 (66.5) 1,013 (69.5) 787 (65.1) 155 (57.0)   
Marital status 
 Not married 848 (28.9) 408 (28.0) 345 (28.5) 95 (34.9) χ2(2, 2,935) = 5.4 0.067 
 Married 2,087 (71.0) 1,047 (71.9) 863 (71.4) 177 (65.1)   
Income 
 Less than $19,999 331 (11.3) 154 (10.6) 121 (10.0) 56 (20.6) χ2(6, 2,492) = 38.0 0.000 
 $20,000–$39,999 559 (19.0) 253 (17.4) 248 (20.5) 58 (21.3)   
 $40,000–$74,999 842 (28.7) 399 (27.4) 363 (30.0) 80 (29.4)   
 $75,000 or more 760 (25.9) 412 (28.3) 300 (24.8) 48 (17.6)   
Age 65.5 (11.1) 64.4a (11.7) 67.7b (10.9) 61.8c (8.8) F(2, 2,937) = 45.8 0.000 
Cancer-related variables 
SEER stage 
In situ 77 (2.6) 24 (1.6) 39 (3.2) 14 (5.1) χ2(6, 2,938) = 15.9 0.014 
 Localized 1,990 (67.7) 988 (67.8) 829 (68.6) 173 (63.6)   
 Regional 697 (23.7) 356 (24.4) 273 (22.6) 68 (25.0)   
 Distant 174 (5.9) 89 (6.1) 68 (5.6) 17 (6.2)   
Cancer recurrence in the past 5 years 
 Yes 214 (7.3) 90 (6.2) 96 (7.9) 28 (10.3) χ2(2, 2,938) = 7.1 0.029 
 No 2,724 (92.7) 1,367 (93.8) 1,113 (92.1) 244 (89.7)   
Cancer metastasized in the past 5 years 
 Yes 98 (3.3) 47 (3.2) 37 (3.1) 14 (5.1) χ2(2, 2,938) = 3.1 0.212 
 No 2,840 (96.7) 1,410 (96.8) 1,172 (96.9) 258 (94.9)   
New cancer diagnosis in the past 5 years 
 Yes 236 (8.0) 104 (7.1) 111 (9.2) 21 (7.7) χ2(2, 2,938) = 3.8 0.152 
 No 2,702 (92.0) 1,353 (92.9) 1,098 (90.8) 251 (92.3)   
Cancer treatment in the past 5 years 
 Yes 551 (18.8) 243 (16.7) 253 (20.9) 55 (20.2) χ2(2, 2,938) = 8.2 0.016 
 No 2,387 (81.2) 1,214 (83.3) 956 (79.1) 217 (79.8)   
Cancer smoking related 
 Yes 830 (28.3) 344 (23.6) 404 (33.4) 82 (30.1) χ2(2, 2,938) = 31.9 0.000 
 No 2,108 (71.7) 1,113 (76.4) 805 (66.6) 190 (69.9)   
Years since diagnosis 8.9 (0.7) 8.9 (0.7) 8.9 (0.7) 9.0 (0.7) F(2, 2,937) = 1.9 0.094 
Other health-related variables 
Mental health treatment in the past 5 years 
 Yes 624 (21.2) 276 (18.9) 264 (21.8) 84 (30.9) χ2(2, 2,938) = 20.0 0.000 
 No 2,314 (78.8) 1,181 (81.1) 945 (79.2) 188 (69.1)   
Alcohol abuse treatment in the past 5 years 
 Yes 8 (0.3) 2 (0.1) 3 (0.2) 3 (1.1) χ2(2, 2,938) = 7.9 0.019 
 No 2,930 (99.7) 1,455 (99.9) 1,206 (99.8) 269 (98.9)   
Alcohol frequency 
 1 d/wk or less 2,138 (72.7) 1,163 (79.8) 790 (65.3) 185 (68.0) χ2(2, 2,915) = 72.3 0.000 
 2 d/wk or more 777 (26.4) 285 (19.6) 407 (33.7) 85 (31.3)   
Alcohol quantity 
 None 1,210 (41.2) 700 (48.0) 417 (34.5) 93 (34.2) χ2(4, 2,887) = 117.0 0.000 
 1 drink/d 980 (33.4) 495 (34.0) 418 (34.6) 67 (24.6)   
 2 or more drinks/d 697 (23.7) 238 (16.3) 351 (29.0) 108 (39.7)   
Physical functioning 46.4 (10.4) 47.5a (10.1) 45.6b (10.2) 43.9c (11.6) F(2, 2,937) = 20.71 0.000 
Comorbid conditions 2.5 (2.1) 2.4a (2.1) 2.7b (2.1) 2.4a,b (2.1) F(2, 2,937) = 8.84 0.000 
BMI 28.7 (6.1) 28.8a (6.6) 28.8a (5.7) 27.3b (5.5) F(2, 2,893) = 7.56 0.001 

NOTE: Means with different subscripts differ significantly at P = 0.05 with Bonferroni correction (and means sharing a subscript do not differ significantly). Subtotals may not equal actual totals due to exclusion of respondents missing data on a particular characteristic.

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