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Table 2.

RR (95% CI) of BCC by group of serum concentration of antioxidants at baseline, person-based analyses in 485 participants of the Nambour Skin Cancer Study, 1996-2004

Serum biomarkerBiomarker concentration
Ptrend
Group 1Group 2Group 3
α-Carotene     
    Median (μmol/L; min-max) 0.05 (0.01-0.07) 0.11 (0.08-0.15) 0.22 (0.16-1.04)  
    No. tumors/participants 18/153 35/171 24/161  
    Basic RR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.87 (1.05-3.30) 1.33 (0.72-2.46) 0.91 
    Multivariate RR (95% CI) 1.00 1.70 (0.95-3.03) 1.28 (0.68-2.41) 0.69 
β-Carotene     
    Median (μmol/L; min-max) 0.30 (0.02-0.44) 0.59 (0.45-0.79) 1.10 (0.80-5.10)  
    No. tumors/participants 23/163 30/159 24/163  
    Basic RR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.33 (0.77-2.30) 1.06 (0.59-1.90) 0.99 
    Multivariate RR (95% CI) 1.00 1.30 (0.74-2.30) 1.07 (0.59-1.96) 0.95 
β-Cryptoxanthin     
    Median (μmol/L; min-max) 0.10 (0.02-0.16) 0.29 (0.18-0.42) 0.73 (0.43- 3.20)  
    No. tumors/participants 23/159 30/168 24/158  
    Basic RR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.10 (0.64-1.90) 0.90 (0.50-1.63) 0.63 
    Multivariate RR (95% CI) 1.00 1.07 (0.61-1.87) 0.91 (0.50-1.67) 0.68 
Lutein and zeaxanthin     
    Median (μmol/L; min-max) 0.20 (0.04-0.28) 0.37 (0.29-0.47) 0.64 (0.48-1.60)  
    No. tumors/participants 26/162 21/158 30/165  
    Basic RR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.85 (0.48-1.51) 1.05 (0.62-1.77) 0.78 
    Multivariate RR (95% CI) 1.00 0.81 (0.45-1.46) 1.06 (0.62-1.83) 0.71 
α-Tocopherol     
    Median (μmol/L; min-max) 24.0 (9.0-27.0) 30.0 (28.0-33.0) 38.5 (34.0-130.0)  
    No. tumors/participants 22/163 29/158 26/164  
    Basic RR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.12 (0.63 1.98) 0.90 (0.50-1.65) 0.65 
    Multivariate RR (95% CI) 1.00 0.88 (0.49-1.56) 0.95 (0.51-1.75) 0.92 
Serum biomarkerBiomarker concentration
Ptrend
Group 1Group 2Group 3
α-Carotene     
    Median (μmol/L; min-max) 0.05 (0.01-0.07) 0.11 (0.08-0.15) 0.22 (0.16-1.04)  
    No. tumors/participants 18/153 35/171 24/161  
    Basic RR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.87 (1.05-3.30) 1.33 (0.72-2.46) 0.91 
    Multivariate RR (95% CI) 1.00 1.70 (0.95-3.03) 1.28 (0.68-2.41) 0.69 
β-Carotene     
    Median (μmol/L; min-max) 0.30 (0.02-0.44) 0.59 (0.45-0.79) 1.10 (0.80-5.10)  
    No. tumors/participants 23/163 30/159 24/163  
    Basic RR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.33 (0.77-2.30) 1.06 (0.59-1.90) 0.99 
    Multivariate RR (95% CI) 1.00 1.30 (0.74-2.30) 1.07 (0.59-1.96) 0.95 
β-Cryptoxanthin     
    Median (μmol/L; min-max) 0.10 (0.02-0.16) 0.29 (0.18-0.42) 0.73 (0.43- 3.20)  
    No. tumors/participants 23/159 30/168 24/158  
    Basic RR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.10 (0.64-1.90) 0.90 (0.50-1.63) 0.63 
    Multivariate RR (95% CI) 1.00 1.07 (0.61-1.87) 0.91 (0.50-1.67) 0.68 
Lutein and zeaxanthin     
    Median (μmol/L; min-max) 0.20 (0.04-0.28) 0.37 (0.29-0.47) 0.64 (0.48-1.60)  
    No. tumors/participants 26/162 21/158 30/165  
    Basic RR (95% CI)* 1.00 0.85 (0.48-1.51) 1.05 (0.62-1.77) 0.78 
    Multivariate RR (95% CI) 1.00 0.81 (0.45-1.46) 1.06 (0.62-1.83) 0.71 
α-Tocopherol     
    Median (μmol/L; min-max) 24.0 (9.0-27.0) 30.0 (28.0-33.0) 38.5 (34.0-130.0)  
    No. tumors/participants 22/163 29/158 26/164  
    Basic RR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.12 (0.63 1.98) 0.90 (0.50-1.65) 0.65 
    Multivariate RR (95% CI) 1.00 0.88 (0.49-1.56) 0.95 (0.51-1.75) 0.92 
*

Adjusted for age, sex, and allocation of a β-carotene supplement during the Nambour trial. All RRs from multivariate Poisson regression.

Adjusted for age, sex, pack-years of smoking, β-carotene supplement allocation during the trial, alcohol intake (continuous), time spent outdoors on weekdays, and history of skin cancer before 1996.

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