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Table 5.

RR of breast cancer and 95% CI by cultural and lifestyle practices in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood

Measure of acculturationChildhood (mother interviewed)
Adolescence (subject interviewed)
Adulthood (subject interviewed)
Cases/controlsRR (95% CI)Cases/controlsRR (95% CI)Cases/controlsRR (95% CI)
Family religion*       
    Western 43/59 1.0 98/232 1.0 293/434 1.0 
    Eastern 42/69 1.17 (0.5-2.5) 368/554 0.64 (0.5-0.9) 238/412 0.88 (0.6-1.2) 
Language spoken at home       
    English 46/78 1.0 202/302 1.0 300/455 1.0 
    Asian and English 14/23 0.91 (0.4-2.2) 83/121 0.83 (0.6-1.2) 82/140 0.74 (0.5-1.1) 
    Asian 37/51 1.06 (0.5-2.4) 306/533 0.75 (0.6-1.0) 211/362 0.76 (0.6-1.0) 
Language of newspapers read by adults in the home       
    English 44/83 1.0 193/289 1.0 222/327 1.0 
    Asian/English equally 22/28 1.43 (0.7-3.2) 122/167 1.11 (0.8-1.5) 84/154 0.82 (0.6-1.2) 
    Asian 24/41 1.34 (0.6-3.0) 257/476 0.87 (0.7-1.1) 107/233 0.71 (0.5-1.0) 
Asian language/culture studied in school by children in family       
    No 37/64 1.0 233/331 1.0 — — 
    Yes 58/88 0.92 (0.5-1.7) 363/635 0.73 (0.6-0.9) — — 
Grocery store used       
    Western 32/56 1.0 149/223 1.0 282/400 1.0 
    Western/Asian equally 19/46 0.77 (0.3-1.7) 111/183 0.81 (0.6-1.1) 187/310 0.76 (0.6-1.0) 
    Asian 45/51 1.79 (0.8-3.8) 333/558 0.76 (0.6-1.0) 128/256 0.60 (0.4-0.8) 
Friends       
    Not Asian/Asian American 14/19 1.0 60/61 1.0 63/73 1.0 
    Both 19/23 0.62 (0.2-1.8) 107/152 0.76 (0.5-1.2) 205/333 0.76 (0.5-1.1) 
    Asian/Asian American 64/110 0.52 (0.2-1.3) 430/753 0.58 (0.4-0.9) 329/560 0.70 (0.5-1.0) 
Neighborhood       
    Not Asian/Asian American 17/23 1.0 53/78 1.0 124/192 1.0 
    Mixed 19/40 0.88 (0.3-2.4) 108/166 1.10 (0.7-1.8) 227/426 1.05 (0.8-1.4) 
    Asian/Asian American 61/90 1.13 (0.5-2.8) 435/722 0.96 (0.6-1.4) 196/348 0.86 (0.6-1.2) 
Measure of acculturationChildhood (mother interviewed)
Adolescence (subject interviewed)
Adulthood (subject interviewed)
Cases/controlsRR (95% CI)Cases/controlsRR (95% CI)Cases/controlsRR (95% CI)
Family religion*       
    Western 43/59 1.0 98/232 1.0 293/434 1.0 
    Eastern 42/69 1.17 (0.5-2.5) 368/554 0.64 (0.5-0.9) 238/412 0.88 (0.6-1.2) 
Language spoken at home       
    English 46/78 1.0 202/302 1.0 300/455 1.0 
    Asian and English 14/23 0.91 (0.4-2.2) 83/121 0.83 (0.6-1.2) 82/140 0.74 (0.5-1.1) 
    Asian 37/51 1.06 (0.5-2.4) 306/533 0.75 (0.6-1.0) 211/362 0.76 (0.6-1.0) 
Language of newspapers read by adults in the home       
    English 44/83 1.0 193/289 1.0 222/327 1.0 
    Asian/English equally 22/28 1.43 (0.7-3.2) 122/167 1.11 (0.8-1.5) 84/154 0.82 (0.6-1.2) 
    Asian 24/41 1.34 (0.6-3.0) 257/476 0.87 (0.7-1.1) 107/233 0.71 (0.5-1.0) 
Asian language/culture studied in school by children in family       
    No 37/64 1.0 233/331 1.0 — — 
    Yes 58/88 0.92 (0.5-1.7) 363/635 0.73 (0.6-0.9) — — 
Grocery store used       
    Western 32/56 1.0 149/223 1.0 282/400 1.0 
    Western/Asian equally 19/46 0.77 (0.3-1.7) 111/183 0.81 (0.6-1.1) 187/310 0.76 (0.6-1.0) 
    Asian 45/51 1.79 (0.8-3.8) 333/558 0.76 (0.6-1.0) 128/256 0.60 (0.4-0.8) 
Friends       
    Not Asian/Asian American 14/19 1.0 60/61 1.0 63/73 1.0 
    Both 19/23 0.62 (0.2-1.8) 107/152 0.76 (0.5-1.2) 205/333 0.76 (0.5-1.1) 
    Asian/Asian American 64/110 0.52 (0.2-1.3) 430/753 0.58 (0.4-0.9) 329/560 0.70 (0.5-1.0) 
Neighborhood       
    Not Asian/Asian American 17/23 1.0 53/78 1.0 124/192 1.0 
    Mixed 19/40 0.88 (0.3-2.4) 108/166 1.10 (0.7-1.8) 227/426 1.05 (0.8-1.4) 
    Asian/Asian American 61/90 1.13 (0.5-2.8) 435/722 0.96 (0.6-1.4) 196/348 0.86 (0.6-1.2) 

NOTE: RR are adjusted for study design variables [age at diagnosis (20-39, 40-44, 45-49, ≥50 y), ethnicity (Chinese, Japanese, Filipino), and study center (Hawaii, Los Angeles, San Francisco-Oakland)] and parity/age at first live birth (nulliparous/never pregnant, 1-2 live births/age at first birth ≤20 y, ≥3 live births/age at first live birth ≤20 y, 1-2 live births/age at first live birth ≥21 y, ≥3 live births/age at first live birth ≥21 y, missing), menopausal status at diagnosis (premenopausal, postmenopausal, missing/other), age at menarche (<13 y, ≥13 y, missing/other), family history of breast cancer (yes, no), and personal history of benign breast disease (yes, no, missing).

*

Excludes subjects who reported that they did not practice any religion during specified period.

Asian refers to any Chinese, Japanese, or Filipino dialect.

For childhood and adolescence, refers to language of newspapers read by parents; for adulthood, refers to language of newspapers read by subject; excludes those who responded that they were not able to read in any language.

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