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Table 3.

Estimated percent changes (95% CIs) in 1-OHP (μmol/mol creatinine) levels and four-random effects models for contributing factors

Estimated percent change (95% CI)
Model IModel IIModel IIIModel IV
Age  −1.7 (−4.5 to 1.3) −1.4 (−4.3 to 1.5) −1.5 (−4.4 to 1.4) −1.6 (−4.4 to 1.4) 
Gender Boy Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Girl 17.6 (2.1-35.3)* 16.8 (1.5-34.4)* 16.3 (1.1-33.9)* 16.5 (1.2-34.1)* 
ETS No Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Yes −8.8 (−20.5 to 4.7) −8.1 (−19.9 to 5.4) −7.8 (−19.6 to 5.8) −8.0 (−19.8 to 5.5) 
Food No Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Yes 17.6 (1.9-35.7)* 18.8 (3.1-37.0)* 18.4 (2.7-88.5)* 16.5 (1.1-34.2)* 
Region Remote Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Nearby 62.5 (40.2-88.5) 62.1 (39.7-88.2) 62.4 (40.0-88.5) 62.3 (39.8-88.3) 
Season Spring  8.7 (−6.0 to 25.8) 6.3 (−8.2 to 23.0) 6.8 (−7.7 to 23.5) 
 Summer  40.9 (20.6-64.7) 30.2 (9.9-54.3)* 20.4 (1.2-43.2)* 
 Fall  37.8 (18.6-60.2) 34.0 (15.1-55.9) 36.1 (16.9-58.3) 
 Winter  Reference Reference Reference 
South wind (%)    28.5 (3.8-59.1)* 9.3 (−13.0-37.4) 
PM10 lag 2     10.1 (4.8-15.7) 
Estimated percent change (95% CI)
Model IModel IIModel IIIModel IV
Age  −1.7 (−4.5 to 1.3) −1.4 (−4.3 to 1.5) −1.5 (−4.4 to 1.4) −1.6 (−4.4 to 1.4) 
Gender Boy Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Girl 17.6 (2.1-35.3)* 16.8 (1.5-34.4)* 16.3 (1.1-33.9)* 16.5 (1.2-34.1)* 
ETS No Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Yes −8.8 (−20.5 to 4.7) −8.1 (−19.9 to 5.4) −7.8 (−19.6 to 5.8) −8.0 (−19.8 to 5.5) 
Food No Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Yes 17.6 (1.9-35.7)* 18.8 (3.1-37.0)* 18.4 (2.7-88.5)* 16.5 (1.1-34.2)* 
Region Remote Reference Reference Reference Reference 
 Nearby 62.5 (40.2-88.5) 62.1 (39.7-88.2) 62.4 (40.0-88.5) 62.3 (39.8-88.3) 
Season Spring  8.7 (−6.0 to 25.8) 6.3 (−8.2 to 23.0) 6.8 (−7.7 to 23.5) 
 Summer  40.9 (20.6-64.7) 30.2 (9.9-54.3)* 20.4 (1.2-43.2)* 
 Fall  37.8 (18.6-60.2) 34.0 (15.1-55.9) 36.1 (16.9-58.3) 
 Winter  Reference Reference Reference 
South wind (%)    28.5 (3.8-59.1)* 9.3 (−13.0-37.4) 
PM10 lag 2     10.1 (4.8-15.7) 

NOTE: Coefficients are expressed as percent changes in 1-OHP–associated contributing factors: model I included age (years), gender, ETS, and charbroiled meat consumption (yes/no); model II included model I plus season; model III included model II plus south wind; and model IV included model III plus PM10 lag 2.

*

P < 0.05.

P < 0.001.

Percent change (95% CI) based on IQR (75-25%) of PM10 lag 2.

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