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Table 1.

Characteristics of the study population and the distribution of reported smoking and toenail biomarker

n (median)5-95 percentile range
Age (y) 2,485 (56.0) 42-62 
Physical activity (h/wk) 2,027 (2.0) 1-4 
Alcohol intake* (g/d) 2,217 (1.8) 0.0-32.8 
Body mass index 2,375 (23.9) 19.4-34.3 
Toenail nicotine for all participants (ng/mg) 2,485 (0.21) 0.06-4.06 
Toenail nicotine for never smokers with no SHS exposure (ng/mg) 157 (0.10) 0.05-0.41 
Toenail nicotine for never smokers with SHS exposure (ng/mg) 768 (0.14) 0.05-0.83 
Toenail nicotine for current smokers (ng/mg) 771 (1.77) 0.24-6.34 
 n % of Population 
Never smokers 988/2,485 40 
Past smokers 726/2,485 29 
Current smokers 771/2,485 31 
SHS among never smokers 768/2,314 33 
Occasionally  70 
Frequently  30 
Toenails infected with fungus 568/2,485 23 
Nail polish used 122/2,485 4.9 
n (median)5-95 percentile range
Age (y) 2,485 (56.0) 42-62 
Physical activity (h/wk) 2,027 (2.0) 1-4 
Alcohol intake* (g/d) 2,217 (1.8) 0.0-32.8 
Body mass index 2,375 (23.9) 19.4-34.3 
Toenail nicotine for all participants (ng/mg) 2,485 (0.21) 0.06-4.06 
Toenail nicotine for never smokers with no SHS exposure (ng/mg) 157 (0.10) 0.05-0.41 
Toenail nicotine for never smokers with SHS exposure (ng/mg) 768 (0.14) 0.05-0.83 
Toenail nicotine for current smokers (ng/mg) 771 (1.77) 0.24-6.34 
 n % of Population 
Never smokers 988/2,485 40 
Past smokers 726/2,485 29 
Current smokers 771/2,485 31 
SHS among never smokers 768/2,314 33 
Occasionally  70 
Frequently  30 
Toenails infected with fungus 568/2,485 23 
Nail polish used 122/2,485 4.9 
*

Using 1980 questionnaire 2 y before the toenail collection.

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