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Table 5.

Multivariate RR of bladder cancer according to physical activity in participants defined by selected variables

VariableNo. casesPhysical activity (times a week)
PtrendPinteraction
0<11-23-4≥5
Gender         
    Men 1,470 1.0 0.84 (0.69-1.02) 0.86 (0.73-1.02) 0.86 (0.73-1.01) 0.87 (0.73-1.03) 0.345 0.317 
    Women 249 1.0 0.88 (0.58-1.34) 0.98 (0.68-1.42) 1.19 (0.84-1.69) 0.78 (0.49-1.23) 0.879  
Age at baseline (y)         
    <65 798 1.0 0.78 (0.62-0.99) 0.83 (0.67-1.03) 0.81 (0.66-1.01) 0.89 (0.71-1.12) 0.685 0.652 
    ≥65 921 1.0 0.93 (0.73-1.28) 0.94 (0.67-1.16) 0.98 (0.81-1.19) 0.86 (0.69-1.07) 0.343  
Race/ethnicity         
    White 1,629 1.0 0.86 (0.72-1.02) 0.88 (0.76-1.03) 0.89 (0.77-1.04) 0.87 (0.74-1.03) 0.336 0.892 
    Non-White 90 1.0 0.75 (0.35-1.60) 0.89 (0.47-1.72) 1.12 (0.62-2.01) 0.82 (0.41-1.66) 0.952  
Education         
    Some college or less 1,097 1.0 0.80 (0.65-0.99) 0.92 (0.76-1.10) 0.98 (0.83-1.17) 0.93 (0.76-1.12) 0.796 0.131 
    College graduate or postgraduate 622 1.0 0.93 (0.69-1.24) 0.81 (0.62-1.06) 0.77 (0.59-0.99) 0.78 (0.59-1.02) 0.064  
Smoking status         
    Current smoker 389 1.0 0.93 (0.68-1.27) 0.93 (0.69-1.24) 0.91 (0.67-1.23) 1.14 (0.83-1.58) 0.509 0.489 
    Former smoker 1,047 1.0 0.83 (0.66-1.04) 0.87 (0.72-1.06) 0.86 (0.72-1.04) 0.78 (0.64-0.96) 0.064  
    Never smoker 283 1.0 0.80 (0.50-1.29) 0.84 (0.56-1.27) 1.01 (0.69-1.48) 0.97 (0.65-1.45) 0.509  
BMI (kg/m2        
    <25.0 479 1.0 0.80(0.57-1.03) 0. 83 (0.62-1.11) 0.79 (0.60-1.06) 0.79 (0.59-1.06) 0.224 0.928 
    25.0-29.9 845 1.0 0.85 (0.66-1.09) 0.83 (0.66-1.03) 0.87 (0.70-1.07) 0.85 (0.68-1.07) 0.429  
    ≥30.0 395 1.0 0.89 (0.65-1.25) 1.04 (0.78-1.39) 1.11 (0.83-1.48) 1.02 (0.73-1.44) 0.498  
Fruit and vegetable intakes*         
    Low 998 1.0 0.88 (0.72-1.09) 0.93 (0.77-1.12) 0.95 (0.79-1.14) 0.88 (0.72-1.09) 0.512 0.963 
    High 721 1.0 0.80 (0.59-1.08) 0.82 (0.63-1.05) 0.84 (0.66-1.06) 0.84 (0.65-1.07) 0.521  
Red meat intake         
    Low 750 1.0 0.83 (0.63-1.09) 0.82 (0.64-1.04) 0.87 (0.69-1.08) 0.87 (0.67-1.09) 0.642 0.937 
    High 969 1.0 0.87 (0.69-1.08) 0.93 (0.77-1.13) 0.93 (0.77-1.13) 0.87 (0.69-1.07) 0.396  
Nonalcoholic beverage intake         
    Low 751 1.0 0.75 (0.57-0.98) 0.85 (0.67-1.07) 0.90 (0.73-1.12) 0.84 (0.66-1.06) 0.658 0.717 
    High 968 1.0 0.94 (0.75-1.17) 0.91 (0.65-1.12) 0.91 (0.75-1.11) 0.91 (0.74-1.12) 0.432  
Alcohol use         
    No 360 1.0 0.86 (0.58-1.27) 1.10 (0.79-1.53) 1.04 (0.76-1.42) 1.18 (0.86-1.63) 0.219 0.221 
    Yes 1,359 1.0 0.84 (0.69-1.02) 0.83 (0.69-0.98) 0.86 (0.73-1.02) 0.79 (0.66-0.95) 0.087  
NSAID use§         
    No 480 1.0 0.87 (0.62-1.22) 0.96 (0.72-1.28) 0.84 (0.63-1.12) 0.93 (0.69-1.26) 0.652 0.234 
    Yes 406 1.0 0.77 (0.54-1.11) 0.77 (0.56-1.06) 0.93 (0.69-1.25) 0.70 (0.49-0.98) 0.297  
VariableNo. casesPhysical activity (times a week)
PtrendPinteraction
0<11-23-4≥5
Gender         
    Men 1,470 1.0 0.84 (0.69-1.02) 0.86 (0.73-1.02) 0.86 (0.73-1.01) 0.87 (0.73-1.03) 0.345 0.317 
    Women 249 1.0 0.88 (0.58-1.34) 0.98 (0.68-1.42) 1.19 (0.84-1.69) 0.78 (0.49-1.23) 0.879  
Age at baseline (y)         
    <65 798 1.0 0.78 (0.62-0.99) 0.83 (0.67-1.03) 0.81 (0.66-1.01) 0.89 (0.71-1.12) 0.685 0.652 
    ≥65 921 1.0 0.93 (0.73-1.28) 0.94 (0.67-1.16) 0.98 (0.81-1.19) 0.86 (0.69-1.07) 0.343  
Race/ethnicity         
    White 1,629 1.0 0.86 (0.72-1.02) 0.88 (0.76-1.03) 0.89 (0.77-1.04) 0.87 (0.74-1.03) 0.336 0.892 
    Non-White 90 1.0 0.75 (0.35-1.60) 0.89 (0.47-1.72) 1.12 (0.62-2.01) 0.82 (0.41-1.66) 0.952  
Education         
    Some college or less 1,097 1.0 0.80 (0.65-0.99) 0.92 (0.76-1.10) 0.98 (0.83-1.17) 0.93 (0.76-1.12) 0.796 0.131 
    College graduate or postgraduate 622 1.0 0.93 (0.69-1.24) 0.81 (0.62-1.06) 0.77 (0.59-0.99) 0.78 (0.59-1.02) 0.064  
Smoking status         
    Current smoker 389 1.0 0.93 (0.68-1.27) 0.93 (0.69-1.24) 0.91 (0.67-1.23) 1.14 (0.83-1.58) 0.509 0.489 
    Former smoker 1,047 1.0 0.83 (0.66-1.04) 0.87 (0.72-1.06) 0.86 (0.72-1.04) 0.78 (0.64-0.96) 0.064  
    Never smoker 283 1.0 0.80 (0.50-1.29) 0.84 (0.56-1.27) 1.01 (0.69-1.48) 0.97 (0.65-1.45) 0.509  
BMI (kg/m2        
    <25.0 479 1.0 0.80(0.57-1.03) 0. 83 (0.62-1.11) 0.79 (0.60-1.06) 0.79 (0.59-1.06) 0.224 0.928 
    25.0-29.9 845 1.0 0.85 (0.66-1.09) 0.83 (0.66-1.03) 0.87 (0.70-1.07) 0.85 (0.68-1.07) 0.429  
    ≥30.0 395 1.0 0.89 (0.65-1.25) 1.04 (0.78-1.39) 1.11 (0.83-1.48) 1.02 (0.73-1.44) 0.498  
Fruit and vegetable intakes*         
    Low 998 1.0 0.88 (0.72-1.09) 0.93 (0.77-1.12) 0.95 (0.79-1.14) 0.88 (0.72-1.09) 0.512 0.963 
    High 721 1.0 0.80 (0.59-1.08) 0.82 (0.63-1.05) 0.84 (0.66-1.06) 0.84 (0.65-1.07) 0.521  
Red meat intake         
    Low 750 1.0 0.83 (0.63-1.09) 0.82 (0.64-1.04) 0.87 (0.69-1.08) 0.87 (0.67-1.09) 0.642 0.937 
    High 969 1.0 0.87 (0.69-1.08) 0.93 (0.77-1.13) 0.93 (0.77-1.13) 0.87 (0.69-1.07) 0.396  
Nonalcoholic beverage intake         
    Low 751 1.0 0.75 (0.57-0.98) 0.85 (0.67-1.07) 0.90 (0.73-1.12) 0.84 (0.66-1.06) 0.658 0.717 
    High 968 1.0 0.94 (0.75-1.17) 0.91 (0.65-1.12) 0.91 (0.75-1.11) 0.91 (0.74-1.12) 0.432  
Alcohol use         
    No 360 1.0 0.86 (0.58-1.27) 1.10 (0.79-1.53) 1.04 (0.76-1.42) 1.18 (0.86-1.63) 0.219 0.221 
    Yes 1,359 1.0 0.84 (0.69-1.02) 0.83 (0.69-0.98) 0.86 (0.73-1.02) 0.79 (0.66-0.95) 0.087  
NSAID use§         
    No 480 1.0 0.87 (0.62-1.22) 0.96 (0.72-1.28) 0.84 (0.63-1.12) 0.93 (0.69-1.26) 0.652 0.234 
    Yes 406 1.0 0.77 (0.54-1.11) 0.77 (0.56-1.06) 0.93 (0.69-1.25) 0.70 (0.49-0.98) 0.297  

NOTE: The multivariate models were adjusted for covariates listed in Table 2 footnote. In each case, the stratification variable was excluded from the model. Within each stratum, the category of subjects with a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 served as the reference group.

*

The strata of low and high fruit and vegetable intakes were defined based on the cut point representing the median value of 3.2 servings/1,000 kcal/d.

The strata of low and high red meat intakes were defined based on the cut point representing the median value of 31.4 g/1,000 kcal/d.

The strata of low and high nonalcoholic beverage intakes were defined based on the cut point representing the median value of 1,782 mL/d.

§

The analysis that was stratified by NSAID use was conducted using data from a subcohort of study participants for whom we had collected information regarding NSAID use.

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