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Table 4.

RR of bladder cancer according to physical activity

VariablePhysical activity (times a week)*
Ptrend
0<11-23-4≥5
Person-years 591,296 467,197 745,4094 929,663 671,077  
No. cases 334 217 363 469 336  
Age- and sex-adjusted RR (95% CI) 1.0 0.80 (0.68-0.95) 0.79 (0.68-0.91) 0.75 (0.65-0.86) 0.71 (0.61-0.82) <0.001 
Multivariate RR without BMI (95% CI) 1.0 0.85 (0.72-1.01) 0.88 (0.75-1.02) 0.89 (0.77-1.03) 0.85 (0.73-0.99) 0.188 
Multivariate RR with BMI (95% CI) 1.0 0.85 (0.72-1.02) 0.89 (0.76-1.03) 0.91 (0.78-1.05) 0.87 (0.74-1.02) 0.358 
VariablePhysical activity (times a week)*
Ptrend
0<11-23-4≥5
Person-years 591,296 467,197 745,4094 929,663 671,077  
No. cases 334 217 363 469 336  
Age- and sex-adjusted RR (95% CI) 1.0 0.80 (0.68-0.95) 0.79 (0.68-0.91) 0.75 (0.65-0.86) 0.71 (0.61-0.82) <0.001 
Multivariate RR without BMI (95% CI) 1.0 0.85 (0.72-1.01) 0.88 (0.75-1.02) 0.89 (0.77-1.03) 0.85 (0.73-0.99) 0.188 
Multivariate RR with BMI (95% CI) 1.0 0.85 (0.72-1.02) 0.89 (0.76-1.03) 0.91 (0.78-1.05) 0.87 (0.74-1.02) 0.358 
*

Physical activity was defined as activities that lasted ≥20 min and caused either increases in breathing or heart rate or working up a sweat.

The multivariate model used age as the underlying time metric and included the following covariates: gender (women, men), a combination of smoking status (never, former, current), time since quitting for former smokers (≥10, 5-9, 1-4, <1 y) and smoking intensity for former and current smokers (1-10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-60, ≥61 cigarettes per day), race/ethnicity (White, Black, Hispanic, other race/ethnicity), education (less than high school, high school, vocational school or some college, college graduate, postgraduate), marital status (married or living as married, other), family history of cancer (yes, no), intakes of red meat (quintiles), fruit and vegetables combined (quintiles), nonalcoholic beverages (quintiles) and alcohol (0, <1, 1-3, >3 servings/d), menopausal hormone therapy (current, past, never), oral contraceptive use (ever, never), and parity (0, 1-2, ≥3).

Adjustment for BMI included the following categories: 18.5-24.9, 25.0-29.9, 30.0-34.9, ≥35.0 kg/m2.

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