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Table 2.

Selected baseline characteristics by level of alcoholic beverage consumption

n (%)
Nondrinkers<1 drink/wk≥1 drink/wk, <1 drink/d≥1 drink/d
Beer     
    No. men 34,059 20,365 16,832 6,786 
    Age, mean (SD)* 58.7 (7.1) 58.1 (7.1) 57.6 (7.0) 57.6 (6.9) 
    White race (%)* 59.3 59.0 68.3 69.7 
    Annual income ≥$80,000 (%)* 35.0 42.6 46.0 37.0 
    College education (%)* 44.5 49.1 50.1 38.2 
    BMI, mean (SD)* 28.2 (5.3) 28.0 (4.8) 27.6 (4.4) 27.3 (4.3) 
    Rigorous physical activity (MET), mean (SD)* 560.6 (1,196.6) 609.9 (1,175.1) 715.6 (1,272.4) 621.2 (1,255.2) 
    History of COPD/emphysema (%)* 2.0 1.3 1.1 1.9 
    Tobacco smoking*     
        Never-smokers (%) 45.9 44.2 41.1 28.9 
        Former smokers (%) 42.4 44.8 48.3 52.6 
        Current smokers (%) 11.7 11.1 10.6 18.5 
        Pack-years (current and former smokers), mean (SD) 18.6 8.9 (16.3) 8.5 (15.1) 14.1 (20.3) 
        Passive smoking ≥5 y (%) 87.1 89.2 90.2 93.8 
    Dietary intake*     
        Total calories (kcal/d), mean (SD) 1,961.1 (1,051.8) 2,030.6 (1,099.2) 2,227.45 (973.8) 2,604.7 (1,358.9) 
        Meat (servings/mo), mean (SD) 33.0 (28.9) 33.5 (28.6) 35.7 (26.2) 40.8 (3.0) 
    Fish (servings/mo), mean (SD) 7.9 (10.2) 8.7 (10.5) 9.0 (9.4) 8.6 (10.7) 
        Fruits/vegetables (servings/d), mean (SD) 4.1 (3.2) 4.3 (3.1) 4.4 (2.9) 4.0 (3.1) 
        Use of multivitamin (yes/no), % 58.8 60.7 60.1 56.1 
Red wine     
    No. men 39,585 19,518 14,414 4,528 
    Age, mean (SD)* 58.1 (7.2) 57.8 (7.1) 58.5 (6.9) 59.6 (6.5) 
    White race (%)* 57.1 57.5 75.8 81.6 
    Annual income ≥$80,000 (%)* 31.9 41.4 53.7 52.7 
    College education (%)* 37.9 48.5 61.7 61.7 
    BMI, mean (SD)* 28.3 (5.2) 28.0 (4.8) 27.2 (4.2) 27.0 (3.9) 
    Rigorous physical activity (MET), mean (SD)* 516.0 (1,171.0) 618.6 (1,191.6) 794.8 (1,275.9) 840.1 (1,369.3) 
    History of COPD/emphysema (%)* 2.1 1.2 1.0 1.2 
    Tobacco smoking*     
        Never-smokers (%) 42.7 43.5 44.7 36.2 
        Former smokers (%) 43.2 44.9 47.8 55.3 
        Current smokers (%) 14.0 11.6 7.5 8.4 
        Pack-years (current and former smokers), mean (SD) 11.3 (19.1) 8.9 (16.1) 8.0 (14.6) 10.5 (16.9) 
        Passive smoking ≥5 y (%) 88.5 89.3 88.8 91.5 
    Dietary intake*     
        Total calories (kcal/d), mean (SD) 2,016.2 (1,103.2) 2,092.2 (1,157.0) 2,208.2 (948.4) 2,408.6 (1,106.0) 
        Meat (servings/mo), mean (SD) 35.0 (30.1) 34.6 (29.6) 33.2 (24.7) 33.1 (25.0) 
        Fish (servings/mo), mean (SD) 7.3 (10.0) 8.8 (10.4) 10.0 (9.6) 10.8 (11.5) 
        Fruits/vegetables (servings/d), mean (SD) 3.9 (3.1) 4.2 (3.1) 4.8 (2.9) 5.0 (3.3) 
        Use of multivitamin (yes/no, %) 56.6 61.0 63.9 61.0 
White wine     
    No. men 45,148 20,637 10,062 2,116 
    Age, mean (SD)* 58.1 (7.1) 58.0 (7.1) 58.8 (6.8) 59.9 (6.4) 
    White race (%)* 58.0 60.7 78.6 83.2 
    Annual income ≥$80,000 (%)* 33.6 43.7 54.5 54.7 
    College education (%)* 39.9 50.2 63.6 63.7 
    BMI, mean (SD)* 28.1 (5.1) 28.0 (4.8) 27.2 (4.1) 27.2 (3.9) 
    Rigorous physical activity (MET), mean (SD)* 552.9 (1,191.0) 637.9 (1,200.2) 791.4 (1,277.7) 745.7 (1,403.6) 
    History of COPD/emphysema (%)* 1.9 1.3 1.2 1.3 
    Tobacco smoking*     
        Never-smokers (%) 42.0 44.1 45.6 37.2 
        Former smokers (%) 44.3 45.2 47.3 53.8 
        Current smokers (%) 13.6 10.7 7.0 8.9 
        Pack-years (current and former smokers), mean (SD) 11.1 (18.7) 8.5 (15.7) 8.0 (15.1) 11.4 (17.5) 
        Passive smoking ≥5 y (%) 88.5 89.4 89.2 92.4 
    Dietary intake*     
        Total calories (kcal/d), mean (SD) 2,011.8 (1,078.8) 2,139.0 (1,144.7) 2,284.4 (952.7) 2,464.2 (1,337.1) 
        Meat (servings/mo), mean (SD) 34.2 (29.2) 34.8 (29.1) 34.5 (25.3) 35.7 (29.8) 
        Fish (servings/mo), mean (SD) 7.6 (10.1) 8.9 (10.3) 10.3 (9.7) 10.3 (11.4) 
        Fruits/vegetables (servings/d), mean (SD) 4.0 (3.1) 4.4 (3.1) 4.8 (2.9) 4.5 (3.1) 
        Use of multivitamin (yes/no, %) 57.3 61.5 63.2 62.6 
Liquor     
    No. men 45,513 19,289 9,269 3,942 
    Age, mean (SD)* 58.4 (7.1) 57.4 (7.1) 58.2 (7.0) 60.1 (6.7) 
    White race (%)* 60.5 58.6 69.8 78.7 
    Annual income ≥$80,000 (%)* 36.4 42.8 46.9 42.3 
    College education (%)* 45.2 47.0 50.4 46.4 
    BMI, mean (SD) 27.8 (5.0) 28.1 (4.8) 28.0 (4.5) 28.1 (4.6) 
    Rigorous physical activity (MET), mean (SD)* 600.6 (1,226.3) 632.9 (1,196.8) 666.9 (1,239.7) 516.7 (1,091.2) 
    History of COPD/emphysema (%)* 1.7 1.3 1.4 2.1 
    Tobacco smoking*     
        Never-smokers (%) 45.5 43.4 37.5 24.1 
        Former smokers (%) 43.4 45.1 49.8 55.0 
        Current smokers (%) 11.1 11.4 12.7 21.0 
        Pack-years (current and former smokers), mean (SD) 9.9 (17.8) 8.6 (15.7) 10.0 (16.3) 17.7 (21.9) 
        Passive smoking ≥5 y (%) 87.5 89.8 91.6 94.8 
    Dietary intake*     
        Total calories (kcal/d), mean (SD) 2,001.7 (1,030.0) 2,137.8 (1,150.4) 2,278.0 (1,029.8) 2,499.6 (1,457.6) 
        Meat (servings/mo), mean (SD) 32.7 (27.7) 35.2 (29.1) 37.9 (29.1) 41.7 (34.6) 
        Fish (servings/mo), mean (SD) 7.9 (9.9) 8.9 (10.4) 9.7 (10.2) 9.3 (11.3) 
        Fruits/vegetables (servings/d), mean (SD) 4.2 (3.1) 4.3 (3.0) 4.3 (2.8) 4.2 (3.4) 
        Use of multivitamin (yes/no, %) 58.4 60.7 61.1 58.5 
n (%)
Nondrinkers<1 drink/wk≥1 drink/wk, <1 drink/d≥1 drink/d
Beer     
    No. men 34,059 20,365 16,832 6,786 
    Age, mean (SD)* 58.7 (7.1) 58.1 (7.1) 57.6 (7.0) 57.6 (6.9) 
    White race (%)* 59.3 59.0 68.3 69.7 
    Annual income ≥$80,000 (%)* 35.0 42.6 46.0 37.0 
    College education (%)* 44.5 49.1 50.1 38.2 
    BMI, mean (SD)* 28.2 (5.3) 28.0 (4.8) 27.6 (4.4) 27.3 (4.3) 
    Rigorous physical activity (MET), mean (SD)* 560.6 (1,196.6) 609.9 (1,175.1) 715.6 (1,272.4) 621.2 (1,255.2) 
    History of COPD/emphysema (%)* 2.0 1.3 1.1 1.9 
    Tobacco smoking*     
        Never-smokers (%) 45.9 44.2 41.1 28.9 
        Former smokers (%) 42.4 44.8 48.3 52.6 
        Current smokers (%) 11.7 11.1 10.6 18.5 
        Pack-years (current and former smokers), mean (SD) 18.6 8.9 (16.3) 8.5 (15.1) 14.1 (20.3) 
        Passive smoking ≥5 y (%) 87.1 89.2 90.2 93.8 
    Dietary intake*     
        Total calories (kcal/d), mean (SD) 1,961.1 (1,051.8) 2,030.6 (1,099.2) 2,227.45 (973.8) 2,604.7 (1,358.9) 
        Meat (servings/mo), mean (SD) 33.0 (28.9) 33.5 (28.6) 35.7 (26.2) 40.8 (3.0) 
    Fish (servings/mo), mean (SD) 7.9 (10.2) 8.7 (10.5) 9.0 (9.4) 8.6 (10.7) 
        Fruits/vegetables (servings/d), mean (SD) 4.1 (3.2) 4.3 (3.1) 4.4 (2.9) 4.0 (3.1) 
        Use of multivitamin (yes/no), % 58.8 60.7 60.1 56.1 
Red wine     
    No. men 39,585 19,518 14,414 4,528 
    Age, mean (SD)* 58.1 (7.2) 57.8 (7.1) 58.5 (6.9) 59.6 (6.5) 
    White race (%)* 57.1 57.5 75.8 81.6 
    Annual income ≥$80,000 (%)* 31.9 41.4 53.7 52.7 
    College education (%)* 37.9 48.5 61.7 61.7 
    BMI, mean (SD)* 28.3 (5.2) 28.0 (4.8) 27.2 (4.2) 27.0 (3.9) 
    Rigorous physical activity (MET), mean (SD)* 516.0 (1,171.0) 618.6 (1,191.6) 794.8 (1,275.9) 840.1 (1,369.3) 
    History of COPD/emphysema (%)* 2.1 1.2 1.0 1.2 
    Tobacco smoking*     
        Never-smokers (%) 42.7 43.5 44.7 36.2 
        Former smokers (%) 43.2 44.9 47.8 55.3 
        Current smokers (%) 14.0 11.6 7.5 8.4 
        Pack-years (current and former smokers), mean (SD) 11.3 (19.1) 8.9 (16.1) 8.0 (14.6) 10.5 (16.9) 
        Passive smoking ≥5 y (%) 88.5 89.3 88.8 91.5 
    Dietary intake*     
        Total calories (kcal/d), mean (SD) 2,016.2 (1,103.2) 2,092.2 (1,157.0) 2,208.2 (948.4) 2,408.6 (1,106.0) 
        Meat (servings/mo), mean (SD) 35.0 (30.1) 34.6 (29.6) 33.2 (24.7) 33.1 (25.0) 
        Fish (servings/mo), mean (SD) 7.3 (10.0) 8.8 (10.4) 10.0 (9.6) 10.8 (11.5) 
        Fruits/vegetables (servings/d), mean (SD) 3.9 (3.1) 4.2 (3.1) 4.8 (2.9) 5.0 (3.3) 
        Use of multivitamin (yes/no, %) 56.6 61.0 63.9 61.0 
White wine     
    No. men 45,148 20,637 10,062 2,116 
    Age, mean (SD)* 58.1 (7.1) 58.0 (7.1) 58.8 (6.8) 59.9 (6.4) 
    White race (%)* 58.0 60.7 78.6 83.2 
    Annual income ≥$80,000 (%)* 33.6 43.7 54.5 54.7 
    College education (%)* 39.9 50.2 63.6 63.7 
    BMI, mean (SD)* 28.1 (5.1) 28.0 (4.8) 27.2 (4.1) 27.2 (3.9) 
    Rigorous physical activity (MET), mean (SD)* 552.9 (1,191.0) 637.9 (1,200.2) 791.4 (1,277.7) 745.7 (1,403.6) 
    History of COPD/emphysema (%)* 1.9 1.3 1.2 1.3 
    Tobacco smoking*     
        Never-smokers (%) 42.0 44.1 45.6 37.2 
        Former smokers (%) 44.3 45.2 47.3 53.8 
        Current smokers (%) 13.6 10.7 7.0 8.9 
        Pack-years (current and former smokers), mean (SD) 11.1 (18.7) 8.5 (15.7) 8.0 (15.1) 11.4 (17.5) 
        Passive smoking ≥5 y (%) 88.5 89.4 89.2 92.4 
    Dietary intake*     
        Total calories (kcal/d), mean (SD) 2,011.8 (1,078.8) 2,139.0 (1,144.7) 2,284.4 (952.7) 2,464.2 (1,337.1) 
        Meat (servings/mo), mean (SD) 34.2 (29.2) 34.8 (29.1) 34.5 (25.3) 35.7 (29.8) 
        Fish (servings/mo), mean (SD) 7.6 (10.1) 8.9 (10.3) 10.3 (9.7) 10.3 (11.4) 
        Fruits/vegetables (servings/d), mean (SD) 4.0 (3.1) 4.4 (3.1) 4.8 (2.9) 4.5 (3.1) 
        Use of multivitamin (yes/no, %) 57.3 61.5 63.2 62.6 
Liquor     
    No. men 45,513 19,289 9,269 3,942 
    Age, mean (SD)* 58.4 (7.1) 57.4 (7.1) 58.2 (7.0) 60.1 (6.7) 
    White race (%)* 60.5 58.6 69.8 78.7 
    Annual income ≥$80,000 (%)* 36.4 42.8 46.9 42.3 
    College education (%)* 45.2 47.0 50.4 46.4 
    BMI, mean (SD) 27.8 (5.0) 28.1 (4.8) 28.0 (4.5) 28.1 (4.6) 
    Rigorous physical activity (MET), mean (SD)* 600.6 (1,226.3) 632.9 (1,196.8) 666.9 (1,239.7) 516.7 (1,091.2) 
    History of COPD/emphysema (%)* 1.7 1.3 1.4 2.1 
    Tobacco smoking*     
        Never-smokers (%) 45.5 43.4 37.5 24.1 
        Former smokers (%) 43.4 45.1 49.8 55.0 
        Current smokers (%) 11.1 11.4 12.7 21.0 
        Pack-years (current and former smokers), mean (SD) 9.9 (17.8) 8.6 (15.7) 10.0 (16.3) 17.7 (21.9) 
        Passive smoking ≥5 y (%) 87.5 89.8 91.6 94.8 
    Dietary intake*     
        Total calories (kcal/d), mean (SD) 2,001.7 (1,030.0) 2,137.8 (1,150.4) 2,278.0 (1,029.8) 2,499.6 (1,457.6) 
        Meat (servings/mo), mean (SD) 32.7 (27.7) 35.2 (29.1) 37.9 (29.1) 41.7 (34.6) 
        Fish (servings/mo), mean (SD) 7.9 (9.9) 8.9 (10.4) 9.7 (10.2) 9.3 (11.3) 
        Fruits/vegetables (servings/d), mean (SD) 4.2 (3.1) 4.3 (3.0) 4.3 (2.8) 4.2 (3.4) 
        Use of multivitamin (yes/no, %) 58.4 60.7 61.1 58.5 
*

P value of χ2 test across level of consumption was <0.01 for that type of alcoholic beverage.

P value of χ2 test for BMI across level of liquor consumption was 0.02.

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