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Table 1.

Baseline characteristics by lung cancer status

Mean (SD) or n (%)*
P
Noncases (n = 77,958)Lung cancer (n = 210)
Age at baseline (y) 58.2 (7.1) 63.5 (5.5) <0.01 
Ethnicity    
    White 48,344 (62.0) 142 (67.6) <0.01 
    African American 5,922 (7.6) 27 (12.9)  
    Hispanic 6,761 (8.7) 18 (8.6)  
    Asian 11,263 (11.5) 17 (8.1)  
    Other 5,157 (6.6) 6 (2.9)  
Education    
    Less than college 41,113 (52.7) 148 (70.5) <0.01 
    College or higher 36,129 (46.3) 62 (29.5)  
Household income    
    $0-40,000 11,523 (19.9) 57 (27.1) <0.01 
    $40,000-80,000 28,447 (36.5) 94 (44.8)  
    >$80,000 30,841 (39.6) 54 (25.7)  
History of COPD/emphysema    
    No 76,736 (98.4) 181 (86.2) <0.01 
    Yes 1,222 (1.6) 29 (13.8)  
Cigarette smoking    
    Never-smokers (%) 33,517 (43.0) 19 (9.1) <0.01 
    Former smokers (%) 35,206 (45.2) 104 (49.5)  
    Current smokers (%) 9,200 (11.8) 87 (41.4)  
    Pack-years (former and current smokers) 17.2 (20.0) 37.5 (27.2)  
Passive smoking    
    No 7,420 (9.5) 8 (3.8) 0.02 
    Yes 69,293 (88.9) 199 (94.8)  
BMI    
    Underweight (BMI < 18.5) 3,126 (4.0) 9 (4.3) 0.04 
    Normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25) 19,226 (24.7) 68 (32.4)  
    Overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) 35,261 (45.2) 85 (40.5)  
    Obese (BMI ≥ 30) 20,345 (26.1) 48 (22.9)  
Vigorous activity score 612.9 (1214.9) 266.3 (688.6) <0.01 
Alcohol intake (servings/mo)    
    Total alcohol 23.3 (44.1) 24.0 (45.0) 0.81 
    Beer 9.4 (27.3) 10.4 (31.5) 0.60 
    Red wine 5.5 (16.0) 2.7 (9.0) <0.01 
    White wine, including rosé 3.3 (12.4) 2.3 (8.3) 0.25 
    Liquor 5.1 (19.0) 8.7 (28.4) <0.01 
Dietary intake    
    Total calories (kcal/d) 2,072.0 (1,120.5) 1,938.3 (865.2) 0.07 
    Fat (g/d) 81.1 (52.3) 79.1 (43.5) 0.58 
    Meat (servings/mo) 34.1 (29.1) 37.3 (29.3) 0.10 
    Fish (servings/mo) 8.4 (10.6) 6.8 (7.3) 0.02 
    Fruits/vegetables (servings/d) 4.2 (3.1) 3.4 (2.3) <0.01 
Use multivitamins (yes/no)    
    No 31,707 (40.7) 102 (48.6) 0.02 
    Yes 46,251 (59.3) 108 (51.4)  
Mean (SD) or n (%)*
P
Noncases (n = 77,958)Lung cancer (n = 210)
Age at baseline (y) 58.2 (7.1) 63.5 (5.5) <0.01 
Ethnicity    
    White 48,344 (62.0) 142 (67.6) <0.01 
    African American 5,922 (7.6) 27 (12.9)  
    Hispanic 6,761 (8.7) 18 (8.6)  
    Asian 11,263 (11.5) 17 (8.1)  
    Other 5,157 (6.6) 6 (2.9)  
Education    
    Less than college 41,113 (52.7) 148 (70.5) <0.01 
    College or higher 36,129 (46.3) 62 (29.5)  
Household income    
    $0-40,000 11,523 (19.9) 57 (27.1) <0.01 
    $40,000-80,000 28,447 (36.5) 94 (44.8)  
    >$80,000 30,841 (39.6) 54 (25.7)  
History of COPD/emphysema    
    No 76,736 (98.4) 181 (86.2) <0.01 
    Yes 1,222 (1.6) 29 (13.8)  
Cigarette smoking    
    Never-smokers (%) 33,517 (43.0) 19 (9.1) <0.01 
    Former smokers (%) 35,206 (45.2) 104 (49.5)  
    Current smokers (%) 9,200 (11.8) 87 (41.4)  
    Pack-years (former and current smokers) 17.2 (20.0) 37.5 (27.2)  
Passive smoking    
    No 7,420 (9.5) 8 (3.8) 0.02 
    Yes 69,293 (88.9) 199 (94.8)  
BMI    
    Underweight (BMI < 18.5) 3,126 (4.0) 9 (4.3) 0.04 
    Normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25) 19,226 (24.7) 68 (32.4)  
    Overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) 35,261 (45.2) 85 (40.5)  
    Obese (BMI ≥ 30) 20,345 (26.1) 48 (22.9)  
Vigorous activity score 612.9 (1214.9) 266.3 (688.6) <0.01 
Alcohol intake (servings/mo)    
    Total alcohol 23.3 (44.1) 24.0 (45.0) 0.81 
    Beer 9.4 (27.3) 10.4 (31.5) 0.60 
    Red wine 5.5 (16.0) 2.7 (9.0) <0.01 
    White wine, including rosé 3.3 (12.4) 2.3 (8.3) 0.25 
    Liquor 5.1 (19.0) 8.7 (28.4) <0.01 
Dietary intake    
    Total calories (kcal/d) 2,072.0 (1,120.5) 1,938.3 (865.2) 0.07 
    Fat (g/d) 81.1 (52.3) 79.1 (43.5) 0.58 
    Meat (servings/mo) 34.1 (29.1) 37.3 (29.3) 0.10 
    Fish (servings/mo) 8.4 (10.6) 6.8 (7.3) 0.02 
    Fruits/vegetables (servings/d) 4.2 (3.1) 3.4 (2.3) <0.01 
Use multivitamins (yes/no)    
    No 31,707 (40.7) 102 (48.6) 0.02 
    Yes 46,251 (59.3) 108 (51.4)  
*

Percentage may not add up to 100% due to missing values.

Vigorous activity was defined as a minimum of 1,260 MET-h activity per week on average, equivalent to at least 3.5 h of activity with a minimum MET level of 6. Scores were derived by multiplying assigned MET values by duration and frequency and summing across activity.

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