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Table 4.

Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident cancer and distribution of incident cancer cases (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and corresponding person-time, by sex and sex-specific quintile of intake of vegetables (including legumes) and fruits; data from 25,623 adults of the Greek component of the EPIC study

Sex-specific quintiles of the corresponding variable
Ordered quintiles
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5
 Men (n = 10,582)      
Vegetables*       
    Quintile median 344 464 555 656 855  
    Person-time 14,976 15,130 15,237 15,065 15,653  
    Incident cancers 94 95 82 76 74  
    HR (95% CI) 1.11 (0.83-1.49) 0.99 (0.72-1.36) 0.92 (0.66-1.29) 0.98 (0.68-1.41) 0.98 (0.90-1.06) 
Fruits       
    Quintile median 147 256 335 428 595  
    Person-time 14,871 15,181 15,267 15,294 15,448  
    Incident cancers 100 87 68 87 79  
    HR (95% CI) 0.83 (0.62-1.12) 0.67 (0.49-0.92) 0.83 (0.61-1.14) 0.86 (0.61-1.19) 0.97 (0.89-1.04) 
 Women (n = 15,041)      
Vegetables*       
    Quintile median 301 414 502 607 801  
    Person-time 21,928 22,345 22,374 22,490 22,843  
    Incident cancers 110 77 91 76 76  
    HR (95% CI) 0.70 (0.52-0.94) 0.85 (0.63-1.14) 0.69 (0.49-0.95) 0.64 (0.44-0.93) 0.91 (0.84-0.99) 
Fruits       
    Quintile median 150 256 335 423 588  
    Person-time 22,006 22,118 22,380 22,534 22,942  
    Incident cancers 98 90 79 75 88  
    HR (95% CI) 0.93 (0.70-1.24) 0.83 (0.61-1.13) 0.80 (0.58-1.10) 0.95 (0.69-1.32) 0.97 (0.90-1.05) 
 Overall (n = 25,623)      
Vegetables*       
    Person-time 36,904 37,475 37,611 37,555 38,496  
    Incident cancers 204 172 173 152 150  
    HR (95% CI) 0.90 (0.73-1.11) 0.93 (0.75-1.16) 0.82 (0.65-1.04) 0.83 (0.64-1.07) 0.96 (0.90-1.01) 
Fruits       
    Person-time 36,877 37,299 37,647 37,828 38,390  
    Incident cancers 198 177 147 162 167  
    HR (95% CI) 0.89 (0.73-1.10) 0.76 (0.61-0.95) 0.85 (0.68-1.05) 0.93 (0.74-1.18) 0.98 (0.93-1.03) 
Sex-specific quintiles of the corresponding variable
Ordered quintiles
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5
 Men (n = 10,582)      
Vegetables*       
    Quintile median 344 464 555 656 855  
    Person-time 14,976 15,130 15,237 15,065 15,653  
    Incident cancers 94 95 82 76 74  
    HR (95% CI) 1.11 (0.83-1.49) 0.99 (0.72-1.36) 0.92 (0.66-1.29) 0.98 (0.68-1.41) 0.98 (0.90-1.06) 
Fruits       
    Quintile median 147 256 335 428 595  
    Person-time 14,871 15,181 15,267 15,294 15,448  
    Incident cancers 100 87 68 87 79  
    HR (95% CI) 0.83 (0.62-1.12) 0.67 (0.49-0.92) 0.83 (0.61-1.14) 0.86 (0.61-1.19) 0.97 (0.89-1.04) 
 Women (n = 15,041)      
Vegetables*       
    Quintile median 301 414 502 607 801  
    Person-time 21,928 22,345 22,374 22,490 22,843  
    Incident cancers 110 77 91 76 76  
    HR (95% CI) 0.70 (0.52-0.94) 0.85 (0.63-1.14) 0.69 (0.49-0.95) 0.64 (0.44-0.93) 0.91 (0.84-0.99) 
Fruits       
    Quintile median 150 256 335 423 588  
    Person-time 22,006 22,118 22,380 22,534 22,942  
    Incident cancers 98 90 79 75 88  
    HR (95% CI) 0.93 (0.70-1.24) 0.83 (0.61-1.13) 0.80 (0.58-1.10) 0.95 (0.69-1.32) 0.97 (0.90-1.05) 
 Overall (n = 25,623)      
Vegetables*       
    Person-time 36,904 37,475 37,611 37,555 38,496  
    Incident cancers 204 172 173 152 150  
    HR (95% CI) 0.90 (0.73-1.11) 0.93 (0.75-1.16) 0.82 (0.65-1.04) 0.83 (0.64-1.07) 0.96 (0.90-1.01) 
Fruits       
    Person-time 36,877 37,299 37,647 37,828 38,390  
    Incident cancers 198 177 147 162 167  
    HR (95% CI) 0.89 (0.73-1.10) 0.76 (0.61-0.95) 0.85 (0.68-1.05) 0.93 (0.74-1.18) 0.98 (0.93-1.03) 

NOTE: Data were adjusted for age (<35, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and >65 y; categorically), formal education (≤5, 6-11, 12, and ≥13 y; categorically), smoking status (never smoker, former smoker, and five categories of current smoker: 1-10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, and ≥41 cigarettes/d; ordered), body mass index (in ordered quintiles), height (in ordered quintiles), physical activity expressed in MET-hours per day (in ordered quintiles), alcohol intake (per 10 g/d; continuously), supplement intake (no, yes), and total daily energy intake (in ordered quintiles). For both genders overall stratified by sex. Fruits and vegetables are mutually adjusted for.

Abbreviations: HR, hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

*

Legumes are included.

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