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Table 4.

Adjusted RR of prostate cancer comparing top to bottom quintiles of blood fatty acid levels according to tumor characteristics

Fatty acidLocalized tumors-stage A/B (n = 289 cases)
Advanced tumors-stage C/D (n = 108 cases)
RR* (95% CI)PtrendRR* (95% CI)Ptrend
Tumor stage     
    Linoleic (18:2n-6) 0.55 (0.32-0.94) 0.04 0.67 (0.28-1.58) 0.55 
    γ-Linolenic (18:3n-6) 1.74 (1.00-3.02) 0.01 1.01 (0.43-2.35) 0.88 
    Dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3n-6) 1.63 (0.98-2.72) 0.08 2.25 (0.92-5.50) 0.01 
    Arachidonic (20:4n-6) 0.68 (0.40-1.15) 0.10 2.45 (1.02-5.90) 0.08 
    α-Linolenic (18:3n-3) 1.66 (1.02-2.71) 0.05 1.04 (0.45-2.38) 0.75 
    Eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) 0.46 (0.24-0.86) 0.02 1.27 (0.49-3.29) 0.77 
    Docosapentaenoic (22:5n-3) 0.46 (0.26-0.83) 0.003 0.72 (0.30-1.73) 0.46 
    Docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) 0.53 (0.30-0.94) 0.02 0.98 (0.39-2.50) 0.92 
    Long-chain n-3 0.52 (0.28-0.94) 0.004 1.03 (0.41-2.63) 0.87 
     
Fatty acid Gleason < 7 (n = 244 cases)
 
 Gleason ≥ 7 (n = 130 cases)
 
 

 
RR* (95% CI)
 
Ptrend
 
RR* (95% CI)
 
Ptrend
 
Tumor grade     
    Linoleic (18:2n-6) 0.79 (0.44-1.43) 0.55 0.38 (0.17-0.86) 0.02 
    γ-Linolenic (18:3n-6) 0.87 (0.48-1.57) 0.93 3.44 (1.51-7.86) 0.01 
    Dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3n-6) 1.47 (0.85-2.54) 0.18 1.48 (0.68-3.22) 0.24 
    Arachidonic (20:4n-6) 0.98 (0.55-1.74) 0.87 1.43 (0.61-3.32) 0.73 
    α-Linolenic (18:3n-3) 1.56 (0.90-2.71) 0.30 1.49 (0.67-3.27) 0.29 
    Eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) 0.57 (0.28-1.11) 0.07 0.42 (0.15-1.14) 0.07 
    Docosapentaenoic (22:5n-3) 0.72 (0.39-1.32) 0.21 0.30 (0.12-0.80) 0.008 
    Docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) 0.64 (0.35-1.17) 0.26 0.53 (0.21-1.31) 0.40 
    Long-chain n-3 0.58 (0.31-1.10) 0.08 0.63 (0.26-1.55) 0.18 
     
Fatty acid Non-aggressive tumors (n = 209 cases)
 
 Aggressive tumors (n = 221 cases)
 
 

 
RR* (95% CI)
 
Ptrend
 
RR* (95% CI)
 
Ptrend
 
Tumor aggressiveness     
    Linoleic (18:2n-6) 0.61 (0.33-1.16) 0.14 0.52 (0.28-0.95) 0.06 
    γ-Linolenic (18:3n-6) 1.12 (0.60-2.09) 0.19 2.09 (1.14-3.83) 0.04 
    Dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3n-6) 1.86 (1.00-3.46) 0.05 1.55 (0.86-2.78) 0.08 
    Arachidonic (20:4n-6) 0.83 (0.45-1.54) 0.41 1.25 (0.69-2.28) 0.59 
    α-Linolenic (18:3n-3) 1.73 (0.98-3.07) 0.09 1.14 (0.64-2.03) 0.84 
    Eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) 0.58 (0.28-1.17) 0.15 0.61 (0.30-1.25) 0.09 
    Docosapentaenoic (22:5n-3) 0.62 (0.32-1.21) 0.13 0.42 (0.21-0.83)  0.004 
    Docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) 0.64 (0.33-1.24) 0.20 0.53 (0.26-1.05) 0.16 
    Long-chain n-3 0.61 (0.31-1.20) 0.10 0.56 (0.27-1.13) 0.03 
Fatty acidLocalized tumors-stage A/B (n = 289 cases)
Advanced tumors-stage C/D (n = 108 cases)
RR* (95% CI)PtrendRR* (95% CI)Ptrend
Tumor stage     
    Linoleic (18:2n-6) 0.55 (0.32-0.94) 0.04 0.67 (0.28-1.58) 0.55 
    γ-Linolenic (18:3n-6) 1.74 (1.00-3.02) 0.01 1.01 (0.43-2.35) 0.88 
    Dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3n-6) 1.63 (0.98-2.72) 0.08 2.25 (0.92-5.50) 0.01 
    Arachidonic (20:4n-6) 0.68 (0.40-1.15) 0.10 2.45 (1.02-5.90) 0.08 
    α-Linolenic (18:3n-3) 1.66 (1.02-2.71) 0.05 1.04 (0.45-2.38) 0.75 
    Eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) 0.46 (0.24-0.86) 0.02 1.27 (0.49-3.29) 0.77 
    Docosapentaenoic (22:5n-3) 0.46 (0.26-0.83) 0.003 0.72 (0.30-1.73) 0.46 
    Docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) 0.53 (0.30-0.94) 0.02 0.98 (0.39-2.50) 0.92 
    Long-chain n-3 0.52 (0.28-0.94) 0.004 1.03 (0.41-2.63) 0.87 
     
Fatty acid Gleason < 7 (n = 244 cases)
 
 Gleason ≥ 7 (n = 130 cases)
 
 

 
RR* (95% CI)
 
Ptrend
 
RR* (95% CI)
 
Ptrend
 
Tumor grade     
    Linoleic (18:2n-6) 0.79 (0.44-1.43) 0.55 0.38 (0.17-0.86) 0.02 
    γ-Linolenic (18:3n-6) 0.87 (0.48-1.57) 0.93 3.44 (1.51-7.86) 0.01 
    Dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3n-6) 1.47 (0.85-2.54) 0.18 1.48 (0.68-3.22) 0.24 
    Arachidonic (20:4n-6) 0.98 (0.55-1.74) 0.87 1.43 (0.61-3.32) 0.73 
    α-Linolenic (18:3n-3) 1.56 (0.90-2.71) 0.30 1.49 (0.67-3.27) 0.29 
    Eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) 0.57 (0.28-1.11) 0.07 0.42 (0.15-1.14) 0.07 
    Docosapentaenoic (22:5n-3) 0.72 (0.39-1.32) 0.21 0.30 (0.12-0.80) 0.008 
    Docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) 0.64 (0.35-1.17) 0.26 0.53 (0.21-1.31) 0.40 
    Long-chain n-3 0.58 (0.31-1.10) 0.08 0.63 (0.26-1.55) 0.18 
     
Fatty acid Non-aggressive tumors (n = 209 cases)
 
 Aggressive tumors (n = 221 cases)
 
 

 
RR* (95% CI)
 
Ptrend
 
RR* (95% CI)
 
Ptrend
 
Tumor aggressiveness     
    Linoleic (18:2n-6) 0.61 (0.33-1.16) 0.14 0.52 (0.28-0.95) 0.06 
    γ-Linolenic (18:3n-6) 1.12 (0.60-2.09) 0.19 2.09 (1.14-3.83) 0.04 
    Dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3n-6) 1.86 (1.00-3.46) 0.05 1.55 (0.86-2.78) 0.08 
    Arachidonic (20:4n-6) 0.83 (0.45-1.54) 0.41 1.25 (0.69-2.28) 0.59 
    α-Linolenic (18:3n-3) 1.73 (0.98-3.07) 0.09 1.14 (0.64-2.03) 0.84 
    Eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) 0.58 (0.28-1.17) 0.15 0.61 (0.30-1.25) 0.09 
    Docosapentaenoic (22:5n-3) 0.62 (0.32-1.21) 0.13 0.42 (0.21-0.83)  0.004 
    Docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) 0.64 (0.33-1.24) 0.20 0.53 (0.26-1.05) 0.16 
    Long-chain n-3 0.61 (0.31-1.20) 0.10 0.56 (0.27-1.13) 0.03 

NOTE: Adjusted for matching factors (age, smoking status at baseline, and length of follow-up).

*

For men in the highest quintile of the specific fatty acid in comparison to men in the lowest quintile.

Calculated with median fatty acid concentration in each quintile as a continuous variable.

Eicosapentaenoic acid + docosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid.

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