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Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of prostate cancer cases and control subjects

Cases (n = 476)Controls (n = 476)P*
Age, y 58 [53-64] 58 [53-63] Matched 
Length of follow-up, y 9 [7-11] —  
Disease status at diagnosis, %    
    Localized (stage A or B) 61 —  
    Advanced (stage C or D) 23 —  
    Undetermined 16 —  
Tumor grade at diagnosis, %    
    Gleason < 7 51 —  
    Gleason ≥ 7 27 —  
    Undetermined 22 —  
Date of diagnosis, %    
    Before October 1, 1990 33 —  
    On or after October 1, 1990 67 —  
Smoking status, %   Matched 
    Current  
    Former 42 42  
White/Caucasian, % 95 93 0.49 
Height, m 1.78 [1.75-1.83] 1.78 [1.73-1.83] 0.14 
Body mass index, kg/m2 24.4 [23.1-25.8] 24.2 [22.8-25.8] 0.15 
Regular multivitamin use, % 21 24 0.45 
Vigorous exercise twice per week or more, % 58 55 0.40 
Alcohol use once per day or more, % 32 30 0.48 
Whole milk once per day or more, % 0.71 
Low-fat milk once per day or more, % 27 23 0.15 
Treatment assignment   0.40 
    Placebo alone 23 28  
    Aspirin alone 26 26  
    β-Carotene alone 26 25  
    Aspirin and β-carotene 25 22  
Blood fatty acids, % total fatty acids    
    Linoleic (18:2n-6) 24.9 [22.7-26.9] 25.3 [23.3-27.2] 0.04 
    γ-Linolenic (18:3n-6) 0.27 [0.21-0.35] 0.26 [0.21-0.33] 0.09 
    Dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3n-6) 1.40 [1.24-1.61] 1.36 [1.22-1.53] 0.02 
    Arachidonic (20:4n-6) 10.2 [9.01-11.2] 10.1 [9.00-11.2] 0.80 
    α-Linolenic (18:3n-3) 0.36 [0.29-0.45] 0.35 [0.29-0.43] 0.30 
    Eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) 1.74 [1.48-2.01] 1.79 [1.52-2.06] 0.06 
    Docosapentaenoic (22:5n-3) 0.94 [0.84-1.06] 0.97 [0.86-1.09] 0.01 
    Docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) 2.18 [1.81-2.61] 2.19 [1.82-2.78] 0.26 
    Long-chain n-3 4.86 [4.25-5.51] 4.96 [4.30-5.74] 0.06 
Cases (n = 476)Controls (n = 476)P*
Age, y 58 [53-64] 58 [53-63] Matched 
Length of follow-up, y 9 [7-11] —  
Disease status at diagnosis, %    
    Localized (stage A or B) 61 —  
    Advanced (stage C or D) 23 —  
    Undetermined 16 —  
Tumor grade at diagnosis, %    
    Gleason < 7 51 —  
    Gleason ≥ 7 27 —  
    Undetermined 22 —  
Date of diagnosis, %    
    Before October 1, 1990 33 —  
    On or after October 1, 1990 67 —  
Smoking status, %   Matched 
    Current  
    Former 42 42  
White/Caucasian, % 95 93 0.49 
Height, m 1.78 [1.75-1.83] 1.78 [1.73-1.83] 0.14 
Body mass index, kg/m2 24.4 [23.1-25.8] 24.2 [22.8-25.8] 0.15 
Regular multivitamin use, % 21 24 0.45 
Vigorous exercise twice per week or more, % 58 55 0.40 
Alcohol use once per day or more, % 32 30 0.48 
Whole milk once per day or more, % 0.71 
Low-fat milk once per day or more, % 27 23 0.15 
Treatment assignment   0.40 
    Placebo alone 23 28  
    Aspirin alone 26 26  
    β-Carotene alone 26 25  
    Aspirin and β-carotene 25 22  
Blood fatty acids, % total fatty acids    
    Linoleic (18:2n-6) 24.9 [22.7-26.9] 25.3 [23.3-27.2] 0.04 
    γ-Linolenic (18:3n-6) 0.27 [0.21-0.35] 0.26 [0.21-0.33] 0.09 
    Dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3n-6) 1.40 [1.24-1.61] 1.36 [1.22-1.53] 0.02 
    Arachidonic (20:4n-6) 10.2 [9.01-11.2] 10.1 [9.00-11.2] 0.80 
    α-Linolenic (18:3n-3) 0.36 [0.29-0.45] 0.35 [0.29-0.43] 0.30 
    Eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) 1.74 [1.48-2.01] 1.79 [1.52-2.06] 0.06 
    Docosapentaenoic (22:5n-3) 0.94 [0.84-1.06] 0.97 [0.86-1.09] 0.01 
    Docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) 2.18 [1.81-2.61] 2.19 [1.82-2.78] 0.26 
    Long-chain n-3 4.86 [4.25-5.51] 4.96 [4.30-5.74] 0.06 
*

P values were computed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables and the χ2 test for categorical variables.

Values expressed as median [25th-75th percentile].

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