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Table 4.

Association between acrylamide intake and risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer, adjusted for acrylamide-containing foods; the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (NLCS), 1986 to 1997


Additionally adjusted for
Increment per 10 μg acrylamide/d
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Ptrend
Endometrial cancer
All
 
        
    Cases/person-years*  221/15,836 44/3,202 40/3,078 39/3,095 46/3,175 52/3,285  
    HR (95% CI) na 1.04 (0.91-1.19) 1.00 0.95 (0.59-1.54) 0.94 (0.56-1.56) 1.21 (0.74-1.98) 1.29 (0.81-2.07) 0.18 
    HR (95% CI) Coffee 1.06 (0.93-1.22) 1.00 1.02 (0.61-1.71) 1.04 (0.60-1.87) 1.35 (0.79-2.32) 1.46 (0.86-2.46) 0.09 
    HR (95% CI) Dutch spiced cake 1.07 (0.79-1.43) 1.00 0.96 (0.59-1.56) 0.96 (0.58-1.61) 1.36 (0.78-2.35) 1.85 (0.86-3.97) 0.17 
    HR (95% CI) Cookies 1.05 (0.92-1.20) 1.00§ 0.98 (0.61-1.59) 0.98 (0.58-1.65) 1.27 (0.77-2.09) 1.37 (0.84-2.21) 0.13 
    HR (95% CI) French fries 1.01 (0.88-1.17) 1.00 0.95 (0.59-1.54) 0.93 (0.56-1.55) 1.16 (0.71-1.92) 1.24 (0.76-2.00) 0.29 
    HR (95% CI) Potato crisps 1.03 (0.90-1.19) 1.00 0.95 (0.59-1.54) 0.94 (0.56-1.56) 1.20 (0.73-1.97) 1.28 (0.80-2.06) 0.20 
Endometrial cancer
 
       
Never-smokers
 
        
    Cases/person-years*, never-smokers  150/9,422 27/2,113 25/1,786 29/1,709 29/1,883 40/1,931  
    HR (95% CI) na 1.12 (0.95-1.33) 1.00 1.16 (0.63-2.15) 1.35 (0.73-2.51) 1.30 (0.69-2.46) 1.99 (1.12-3.52) 0.03 
    HR (95% CI) Coffee 1.13 (0.95-1.35) 1.00 1.25 (0.65-2.38) 1.50 (0.77-2.93) 1.44 (0.74-2.79) 2.16 (1.16-4.05) 0.02 
    HR (95% CI) Dutch spiced cake 1.05 (0.71-1.55) 1.00 1.17 (0.64-2.17) 1.38 (0.75-2.57) 1.45 (0.73-2.88) 2.67 (1.08-6.61) 0.08 
    HR (95% CI) Cookies 1.14 (0.96-1.35) 1.00 1.23 (0.66-2.27) 1.45 (0.77-2.75) 1.39 (0.74-2.63) 2.13 (1.18-3.85) 0.02 
    HR (95% CI) French fries 1.11 (0.93-1.32) 1.00 1.16 (0.63-2.15) 1.34 (0.73-2.49) 1.26 (0.65-2.47) 1.92 (1.07-3.45) 0.05 
    HR (95% CI) Potato crisps 1.14 (0.95-1.35) 1.00 1.16 (0.63-2.14) 1.35 (0.73-2.51) 1.32 (0.70-2.48) 2.01 (1.14-3.57) 0.02 
All
 
        
Ovarian cancer         
    Cases/person-years*  195/19,037 31/3,803 39/3,939 32/3,595 39/3,823 54/3,877  
    HR (95% CI) na 1.11 (0.99-1.25) 1.00 1.22 (0.73-2.01) 1.12 (0.65-1.92) 1.28 (0.77-2.13) 1.78 (1.10-2.88) 0.02 
    HR (95% CI)§ Coffee 1.08 (0.95-1.22) 1.00 1.11 (0.66-1.86) 0.97 (0.56-1.70) 1.09 (0.63-1.90) 1.53 (0.93-2.53) 0.10 
    HR (95% CI)§ Dutch spiced cake 1.33 (1.08-1.65) 1.00 1.25 (0.75-2.06) 1.18 (0.69-2.02) 1.53 (0.90-2.60) 3.24 (1.57-6.71) 0.01 
    HR (95% CI)§ Cookies 1.10 (0.98-1.25) 1.00 1.20 (0.73-1.99) 1.10 (0.64-1.91) 1.26 (0.75-2.12) 1.74 (1.05-2.89) 0.04 
    HR (95% CI)§ French fries 1.09 (0.96-1.24) 1.00 1.21 (0.73-2.01) 1.11 (0.65-1.90) 1.24 (0.74-2.09) 1.72 (1.04-2.82) 0.05 
    HR (95% CI)§ Potato crisps 1.11 (0.99-1.25) 1.00 1.22 (0.73-2.01) 1.12 (0.65-1.92) 1.28 (0.77-2.13) 1.78 (1.10-2.88) 0.03 
Ovarian cancer
 
       
Never-smokers
 
        
    Cases/person-years*, never-smokers  129/11,446 18/2,540 27/2,373 22/1,992 29/2,250 33/2,292  
    HR (95% CI)§ na 1.17 (1.01-1.36) 1.00 1.60 (0.85-3.02) 1.64 (0.84-3.19) 1.86 (1.00-3.48) 2.22 (1.20-4.08) 0.01 
    HR (95% CI)§ Coffee 1.12 (0.95-1.32) 1.00 1.43 (0.75-2.75) 1.37 (0.68-2.76) 1.54 (0.77-3.05) 1.86 (0.98-3.51) 0.08 
    HR (95% CI)§ Dutch spiced cake 1.44 (1.07-1.94) 1.00 1.62 (0.86-3.06) 1.67 (0.85-3.26) 2.01 (1.04-3.88) 2.91 (1.10-7.67) 0.02 
    HR (95% CI)§ Cookies 1.18 (1.00-1.38) 1.00 1.63 (0.87-3.06) 1.68 (0.85-3.32) 1.92 (1.01-3.65) 2.29 (1.21-4.34) 0.02 
    HR (95% CI)§ French fries 1.17 (1.01-1.37) 1.00 1.61 (0.85-3.05) 1.65 (0.84-3.22) 1.91 (1.00-3.64) 2.26 (1.21-4.24) 0.01 
    HR (95% CI)§ Potato crisps 1.17 (1.00-1.36) 1.00 1.60 (0.85-3.02) 1.63 (0.84-3.18) 1.85 (0.99-3.47) 2.19 (1.19-4.04) 0.01 

Additionally adjusted for
Increment per 10 μg acrylamide/d
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Ptrend
Endometrial cancer
All
 
        
    Cases/person-years*  221/15,836 44/3,202 40/3,078 39/3,095 46/3,175 52/3,285  
    HR (95% CI) na 1.04 (0.91-1.19) 1.00 0.95 (0.59-1.54) 0.94 (0.56-1.56) 1.21 (0.74-1.98) 1.29 (0.81-2.07) 0.18 
    HR (95% CI) Coffee 1.06 (0.93-1.22) 1.00 1.02 (0.61-1.71) 1.04 (0.60-1.87) 1.35 (0.79-2.32) 1.46 (0.86-2.46) 0.09 
    HR (95% CI) Dutch spiced cake 1.07 (0.79-1.43) 1.00 0.96 (0.59-1.56) 0.96 (0.58-1.61) 1.36 (0.78-2.35) 1.85 (0.86-3.97) 0.17 
    HR (95% CI) Cookies 1.05 (0.92-1.20) 1.00§ 0.98 (0.61-1.59) 0.98 (0.58-1.65) 1.27 (0.77-2.09) 1.37 (0.84-2.21) 0.13 
    HR (95% CI) French fries 1.01 (0.88-1.17) 1.00 0.95 (0.59-1.54) 0.93 (0.56-1.55) 1.16 (0.71-1.92) 1.24 (0.76-2.00) 0.29 
    HR (95% CI) Potato crisps 1.03 (0.90-1.19) 1.00 0.95 (0.59-1.54) 0.94 (0.56-1.56) 1.20 (0.73-1.97) 1.28 (0.80-2.06) 0.20 
Endometrial cancer
 
       
Never-smokers
 
        
    Cases/person-years*, never-smokers  150/9,422 27/2,113 25/1,786 29/1,709 29/1,883 40/1,931  
    HR (95% CI) na 1.12 (0.95-1.33) 1.00 1.16 (0.63-2.15) 1.35 (0.73-2.51) 1.30 (0.69-2.46) 1.99 (1.12-3.52) 0.03 
    HR (95% CI) Coffee 1.13 (0.95-1.35) 1.00 1.25 (0.65-2.38) 1.50 (0.77-2.93) 1.44 (0.74-2.79) 2.16 (1.16-4.05) 0.02 
    HR (95% CI) Dutch spiced cake 1.05 (0.71-1.55) 1.00 1.17 (0.64-2.17) 1.38 (0.75-2.57) 1.45 (0.73-2.88) 2.67 (1.08-6.61) 0.08 
    HR (95% CI) Cookies 1.14 (0.96-1.35) 1.00 1.23 (0.66-2.27) 1.45 (0.77-2.75) 1.39 (0.74-2.63) 2.13 (1.18-3.85) 0.02 
    HR (95% CI) French fries 1.11 (0.93-1.32) 1.00 1.16 (0.63-2.15) 1.34 (0.73-2.49) 1.26 (0.65-2.47) 1.92 (1.07-3.45) 0.05 
    HR (95% CI) Potato crisps 1.14 (0.95-1.35) 1.00 1.16 (0.63-2.14) 1.35 (0.73-2.51) 1.32 (0.70-2.48) 2.01 (1.14-3.57) 0.02 
All
 
        
Ovarian cancer         
    Cases/person-years*  195/19,037 31/3,803 39/3,939 32/3,595 39/3,823 54/3,877  
    HR (95% CI) na 1.11 (0.99-1.25) 1.00 1.22 (0.73-2.01) 1.12 (0.65-1.92) 1.28 (0.77-2.13) 1.78 (1.10-2.88) 0.02 
    HR (95% CI)§ Coffee 1.08 (0.95-1.22) 1.00 1.11 (0.66-1.86) 0.97 (0.56-1.70) 1.09 (0.63-1.90) 1.53 (0.93-2.53) 0.10 
    HR (95% CI)§ Dutch spiced cake 1.33 (1.08-1.65) 1.00 1.25 (0.75-2.06) 1.18 (0.69-2.02) 1.53 (0.90-2.60) 3.24 (1.57-6.71) 0.01 
    HR (95% CI)§ Cookies 1.10 (0.98-1.25) 1.00 1.20 (0.73-1.99) 1.10 (0.64-1.91) 1.26 (0.75-2.12) 1.74 (1.05-2.89) 0.04 
    HR (95% CI)§ French fries 1.09 (0.96-1.24) 1.00 1.21 (0.73-2.01) 1.11 (0.65-1.90) 1.24 (0.74-2.09) 1.72 (1.04-2.82) 0.05 
    HR (95% CI)§ Potato crisps 1.11 (0.99-1.25) 1.00 1.22 (0.73-2.01) 1.12 (0.65-1.92) 1.28 (0.77-2.13) 1.78 (1.10-2.88) 0.03 
Ovarian cancer
 
       
Never-smokers
 
        
    Cases/person-years*, never-smokers  129/11,446 18/2,540 27/2,373 22/1,992 29/2,250 33/2,292  
    HR (95% CI)§ na 1.17 (1.01-1.36) 1.00 1.60 (0.85-3.02) 1.64 (0.84-3.19) 1.86 (1.00-3.48) 2.22 (1.20-4.08) 0.01 
    HR (95% CI)§ Coffee 1.12 (0.95-1.32) 1.00 1.43 (0.75-2.75) 1.37 (0.68-2.76) 1.54 (0.77-3.05) 1.86 (0.98-3.51) 0.08 
    HR (95% CI)§ Dutch spiced cake 1.44 (1.07-1.94) 1.00 1.62 (0.86-3.06) 1.67 (0.85-3.26) 2.01 (1.04-3.88) 2.91 (1.10-7.67) 0.02 
    HR (95% CI)§ Cookies 1.18 (1.00-1.38) 1.00 1.63 (0.87-3.06) 1.68 (0.85-3.32) 1.92 (1.01-3.65) 2.29 (1.21-4.34) 0.02 
    HR (95% CI)§ French fries 1.17 (1.01-1.37) 1.00 1.61 (0.85-3.05) 1.65 (0.84-3.22) 1.91 (1.00-3.64) 2.26 (1.21-4.24) 0.01 
    HR (95% CI)§ Potato crisps 1.17 (1.00-1.36) 1.00 1.60 (0.85-3.02) 1.63 (0.84-3.18) 1.85 (0.99-3.47) 2.19 (1.19-4.04) 0.01 

NOTE: Data represent HRs for acrylamide intake. The numbers of cases and person-years are the numbers that resulted after list-wise deletion of observations with missing values on the selected confounders. Number (percentage) of cases who consumed coffee: endometrial cancer cases: 212 (95.9); ovarian cancer cases: 192 (98.5). Number (percentage) of cases who consumed Dutch spiced cake: endometrial cancer cases: 110 (49.8); ovarian cancer cases: 104 (53.3). Number (percentage) of cases who consumed cookies: endometrial cancer cases: 194 (87.8); ovarian cancer cases: 179 (91.8). Number (percentage) of cases who consumed French fries: endometrial cancer cases: 82 (37.1); ovarian cancer cases: 56 (28.7). Number (percentage) of cases who consumed potato crisps: endometrial cancer cases: 51 (23.1); ovarian cancer cases: 42 (21.5).

Abbreviation: na, not applicable. Hrs are from Table 3.

*

Number of cases that accumulated in the total cohort/person-years at risk of the subcohort.

Adjusted for age (y), age at menarche (y), age at menopause (y), age at first childbirth (y), parity (n children), duration of oral contraceptives use (y), duration of postmenopausal hormone use (y), BMI (kg/m2), height (cm), current smoking (yes/no), quantity of smoking (cigarettes/d), duration of smoking (n smoking years), non-occupational physical activity (min/d), energy intake (kcal/d), trans-unsaturated fatty acid intake (energy-adjusted; g/d), carbohydrate intake (energy-adjusted; g/d), alcohol consumption (g/d).

Reference category.

§

Adjusted for age (y), age at menarche (y), age at menopause (y), parity (n children), duration of oral contraceptives use (y), duration of postmenopausal hormone use (y), BMI (kg/m2), height (cm), current smoking (yes/no), quantity of smoking (cigarettes/d), duration of smoking (n smoking years), saturated fat intake (energy-adjusted; g/d), trans-unsaturated fatty acid intake (energy-adjusted; g/d).

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