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Table 3.

Age and multivariable-adjusted association between acrylamide intake and risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer; the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (NLCS), 1986 to 1997

Increment per 10 μg acrylamide/dQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5Ptrend
Endometrial cancer        
All
 
       
Cases/person-years* 221/15,836 44/3,202 40/3,078 39/3,095 46/3,175 52/3,285  
HR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.90-1.14) 1.00 0.96 (0.61-1.51) 0.94 (0.59-1.49) 1.09 (0.70-1.70) 1.17 (0.76-1.79) 0.38 
HR (95% CI)§ 1.04 (0.91-1.19) 1.00 0.95 (0.59-1.54) 0.94 (0.56-1.56) 1.21 (0.74-1.98) 1.29 (0.81-2.07) 0.18 
Endometrial cancer
 
       
Never-smokers
 
       
Cases/person-years*, never-smokers 150/9,422 27/2,113 25/1,786 29/1,709 29/1,883 40/1,931  
HR (95% CI) 1.07 (0.93-1.24) 1.00 1.10 (0.62-1.97) 1.36 (0.77-2.40) 1.23 (0.70-2.16) 1.63 (0.97-2.74) 0.07 
HR (95% CI)§ 1.12 (0.95-1.33) 1.00 1.16 (0.63-2.15) 1.35 (0.73-2.51) 1.30 (0.69-2.46) 1.99 (1.12-3.52) 0.03 
Ovarian cancer        
All
 
       
Cases/person-years* 195/19,037 31/3,803 39/3,939 32/3,595 39/3,823 54/3,877  
HR (95% CI) 1.11 (0.99-1.24) 1.00 1.26 (0.77-2.06) 1.16 (0.69-1.94) 1.33 (0.82-2.18) 1.77 (1.11-2.82) 0.02 
HR (95% CI) 1.11 (0.99-1.25) 1.00 1.22 (0.73-2.01) 1.12 (0.65-1.92) 1.28 (0.77-2.13) 1.78 (1.10-2.88) 0.02 
Ovarian cancer
 
       
Never-smokers
 
       
Cases/person-years*, never-smokers 129/11,446 18/2,540 27/2,373 22/1,992 29/2,250 33/2,292  
HR(95% CI) 1.16 (1.00-1.34) 1.00 1.62 (0.87-3.02) 1.64 (0.85-3.16) 1.90 (1.03-3.50) 2.06 (1.13-3.77) 0.02 
HR(95% CI) 1.17 (1.01-1.36) 1.00 1.60 (0.85-3.02) 1.64 (0.84-3.19) 1.86 (1.00-3.48) 2.22 (1.20-4.08) 0.01 
Breast cancer        
All
 
       
Cases/person-years* 1,350/19,036 296/3,732 267/3,941 257/3,616 254/3,877 276/3,871  
HR (95% CI) 0.98 (0.92-1.04) 1.00 0.86 (0.69-1.07) 0.91 (0.72-1.14) 0.84 (0.67-1.05) 0.90 (0.73-1.13) 0.37 
HR(95% CI) 0.99 (0.92-1.06) 1.00 0.80 (0.64-1.02) 0.92 (0.72-1.17) 0.86 (0.67-1.10) 0.93 (0.73-1.19) 0.79 
Breast cancer
 
       
Never-smokers
 
       
Cases/person-years*, never-smokers 767/11,540 159/2,496 159/2,379 147/2,054 144/2,317 158/2,294  
HR(95% CI) 1.01 (0.93-1.09) 1.00 1.06 (0.80-1.41) 1.18 (0.88-1.59) 1.01 (0.75-1.36) 1.10 (0.82-1.47) 0.66 
HR(95% CI) 1.01 (0.93-1.11) 1.00 0.97 (0.72-1.32) 1.17 (0.85-1.61) 1.00 (0.73-1.38) 1.10 (0.80-1.52) 0.55 
Increment per 10 μg acrylamide/dQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5Ptrend
Endometrial cancer        
All
 
       
Cases/person-years* 221/15,836 44/3,202 40/3,078 39/3,095 46/3,175 52/3,285  
HR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.90-1.14) 1.00 0.96 (0.61-1.51) 0.94 (0.59-1.49) 1.09 (0.70-1.70) 1.17 (0.76-1.79) 0.38 
HR (95% CI)§ 1.04 (0.91-1.19) 1.00 0.95 (0.59-1.54) 0.94 (0.56-1.56) 1.21 (0.74-1.98) 1.29 (0.81-2.07) 0.18 
Endometrial cancer
 
       
Never-smokers
 
       
Cases/person-years*, never-smokers 150/9,422 27/2,113 25/1,786 29/1,709 29/1,883 40/1,931  
HR (95% CI) 1.07 (0.93-1.24) 1.00 1.10 (0.62-1.97) 1.36 (0.77-2.40) 1.23 (0.70-2.16) 1.63 (0.97-2.74) 0.07 
HR (95% CI)§ 1.12 (0.95-1.33) 1.00 1.16 (0.63-2.15) 1.35 (0.73-2.51) 1.30 (0.69-2.46) 1.99 (1.12-3.52) 0.03 
Ovarian cancer        
All
 
       
Cases/person-years* 195/19,037 31/3,803 39/3,939 32/3,595 39/3,823 54/3,877  
HR (95% CI) 1.11 (0.99-1.24) 1.00 1.26 (0.77-2.06) 1.16 (0.69-1.94) 1.33 (0.82-2.18) 1.77 (1.11-2.82) 0.02 
HR (95% CI) 1.11 (0.99-1.25) 1.00 1.22 (0.73-2.01) 1.12 (0.65-1.92) 1.28 (0.77-2.13) 1.78 (1.10-2.88) 0.02 
Ovarian cancer
 
       
Never-smokers
 
       
Cases/person-years*, never-smokers 129/11,446 18/2,540 27/2,373 22/1,992 29/2,250 33/2,292  
HR(95% CI) 1.16 (1.00-1.34) 1.00 1.62 (0.87-3.02) 1.64 (0.85-3.16) 1.90 (1.03-3.50) 2.06 (1.13-3.77) 0.02 
HR(95% CI) 1.17 (1.01-1.36) 1.00 1.60 (0.85-3.02) 1.64 (0.84-3.19) 1.86 (1.00-3.48) 2.22 (1.20-4.08) 0.01 
Breast cancer        
All
 
       
Cases/person-years* 1,350/19,036 296/3,732 267/3,941 257/3,616 254/3,877 276/3,871  
HR (95% CI) 0.98 (0.92-1.04) 1.00 0.86 (0.69-1.07) 0.91 (0.72-1.14) 0.84 (0.67-1.05) 0.90 (0.73-1.13) 0.37 
HR(95% CI) 0.99 (0.92-1.06) 1.00 0.80 (0.64-1.02) 0.92 (0.72-1.17) 0.86 (0.67-1.10) 0.93 (0.73-1.19) 0.79 
Breast cancer
 
       
Never-smokers
 
       
Cases/person-years*, never-smokers 767/11,540 159/2,496 159/2,379 147/2,054 144/2,317 158/2,294  
HR(95% CI) 1.01 (0.93-1.09) 1.00 1.06 (0.80-1.41) 1.18 (0.88-1.59) 1.01 (0.75-1.36) 1.10 (0.82-1.47) 0.66 
HR(95% CI) 1.01 (0.93-1.11) 1.00 0.97 (0.72-1.32) 1.17 (0.85-1.61) 1.00 (0.73-1.38) 1.10 (0.80-1.52) 0.55 

NOTE: The numbers of cases and person-years are the numbers that resulted after list-wise deletion of observations with missing values on the selected confounders.

*

Number of cases that accumulated in the total cohort/person-years at risk of the subcohort.

Age-adjusted (same data set as in multivariable-adjusted analyses).

Reference category.

§

Adjusted for: age (y), age at menarche (y), age at menopause (y), age at first childbirth (dummy: nulliparous, 17-19 y, 20-24 y, 25-29 y, ≥ 30 y), parity (n children), duration of oral contraceptives use (y), duration of postmenopausal hormone use (y), BMI (kg/m2), height (cm), current smoking (yes/no), quantity of smoking (cigarettes/d), duration of smoking (n smoking years), non-occupational physical activity (min/d), energy intake (kcal/d), trans-unsaturated fatty acid intake (energy-adjusted; g/d), carbohydrate intake (energy-adjusted; g/d), alcohol consumption (g/d).

Adjusted for age (y), age at menarche (y), age at menopause (y), parity (n children), duration of oral contraceptives use (y), duration of postmenopausal hormone use (y), BMI (kg/m2), height (cm), current smoking (yes/no), quantity of smoking (cigarettes/d), duration of smoking (n smoking years), saturated fat intake (energy-adjusted; g/d), trans-unsaturated fatty acid intake (energy-adjusted; g/d).

Adjusted for age (y), age at menarche (y), age at menopause (y), age at first childbirth (dummy: nulliparous, 17-19 y, 20-24 y, 25-29 y, ≥30 y), duration of oral contraceptives use (y), duration of postmenopausal hormone use (y), BMI (kg/m2), height (cm), current smoking (yes/no), quantity of smoking (cigarettes/d), duration of smoking (n smoking years), socioeconomic status (four levels of education), energy intake (kcal/d), saturated fat intake (energy-adjusted; g/d), carbohydrate intake (energy-adjusted; g/d), family history of breast cancer (yes/no), history of benign breast disease (yes/no).

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