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Table 2.

Characteristics of the subcohort members across quintiles of daily dietary acrylamide intake; the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (NLCS), 1986 to 1997

VariableQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5P*
Number of subcohort members 471 482 455 466 470  
Dietary variables       
    Acrylamide intake, μg/d 9.5 (3.7) 14.0 (1.5) 17.9 (2.2) 24.3 (4.7) 36.8 (9.6) <0.001 
    Acrylamide intake, μg/kg body weight per day 0.14 (0.06) 0.20 (0.04) 0.26 (0.05) 0.34 (0.08) 0.53 (0.19) <0.001 
    Coffee consumption, g/d 250 (125) 500 (125) 500 (250) 500 (375) 500 (375) <0.001 
    Dutch spiced cake consumption, g/d 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.7) 0.0 (1.8) 1.8 (7.8) 20.4 (12.6) <0.001 
    Cookie consumption, g/d 3.7 (8.7) 9.6 (20.4) 16.7 (14.8) 16.7 (14.8) 16.7 (14.8) <0.001 
    Potato crisp consumption, g/d 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.3) 0.0 (0.7) <0.001 
    French fries consumption, g/d 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (4.8) 0.0 (12.3) 0.0 (9.7) <0.001 
    Total energy intake, kcal 1467 (449) 1580 (452) 1671 (465) 1730 (550) 1821 (548) <0.001 
    Carbohydrate intake, g/d 153 (55) 162 (50) 176 (53) 183 (61) 200 (69) <0.001 
    Saturated fat intake, g/d 25.5 (12.0) 28.0 (12.6) 28.9 (11.6) 29.8 (13.2) 30.8 (12.3) <0.001 
    Trans-unsaturated fatty acid intake, g/d 1.8 (1.2) 2.1 (1.3) 2.3 (1.4) 2.6 (1.5) 2.7 (1.6) <0.001 
    Fiber intake, g/d 22.9 (9.5) 23.9 (8.5) 24.5 (9.1) 25.7 (9.6) 26.6 (8.6) <0.001 
    Vegetable intake, g/d 184 (107) 182 (102) 179 (83) 190 (104) 184 (96) 0.34 
    Fruit intake, g/d 184 (151) 179 (149) 175 (140) 174 (138) 180 (146) 0.42 
    Alcohol intake, g/d 0.9 (8.4) 1.6 (7.8) 2.0 (8.6) 1.9 (7.0) 1.4 (7.1) 0.09 
Nondietary variables       
    Age, y 62 (7) 61 (7) 60 (7) 61 (8) 61 (7) <0.001 
    BMI, kg/m2 24.6 (4.3) 24.8 (4.4) 24.8 (4.3) 24.6 (4.3) 24.3 (4.2) 0.07 
    Height, cm 165 (8) 165 (9) 165 (8) 165 (8) 165 (10) 0.18 
    Parity, n children 2 (3) 3 (3) 3 (2) 3 (2) 2 (3) 0.003 
    Age at menarche, y 13 (2) 13 (2) 14 (3) 14 (2) 14 (3) 0.12 
    Age at menopause, y 50 (6) 50 (6) 49 (7) 50 (6) 50 (6) 0.38 
    Age at first childbirth, y 27 (5) 26 (5) 27 (5) 26 (5) 26 (5) 0.92 
    Current cigarette smoking, % yes 17.0 18.9 25.9 21.5 19.2 0.02 
    n cigarettes per day among ever-smokers 10 (15) 10 (15) 10 (15) 10 (10) 10 (15) 0.79 
    n smoking years among ever-smokers 31 (20) 27 (20) 30 (20) 28 (21) 29 (19) 0.03 
    Non-occupational physical activity, minutes/d 51.4 (57.9) 51.4 (54.6) 53.6 (54.3) 53.6 (53.6) 51.4 (60.0) 0.91 
    Oral contraceptive use, % ever 22.6 25.1 26.1 26.5 23.6 0.61 
    Oral contraceptive use duration among ever-users, y 6 (9) 6 (9) 6 (8) 7 (10) 8 (8) 0.22 
    Postmenop. hrt§ use, % ever 13.6 14.9 12.6 11.4 11.0 0.76 
    Postmenop. hrt§ use duration among ever-users, y 2 (5) 1 (4) 1 (2) 2 (3) 2 (4) 0.15 
    Education, %      <0.001 
        Primary school 29.9 30.9 34.5 35.2 35.1  
        Lower vocational school 18.3 20.5 25.7 26.2 24.0  
        Intermediate vocational/high school 37.2 39.6 33.6 29.0 32.3  
        Higher vocational school/University 13.6 8.5 5.5 9.0 8.1  
    Family history of breast cancer, % yes 8.5 8.9 7.9 7.5 11.1 0.35 
    Family history of endometrial cancer, % yes 2.3 2.3 3.5 3.4 2.3 0.60 
    Family history of ovarian cancer, % yes 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.52 
VariableQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5P*
Number of subcohort members 471 482 455 466 470  
Dietary variables       
    Acrylamide intake, μg/d 9.5 (3.7) 14.0 (1.5) 17.9 (2.2) 24.3 (4.7) 36.8 (9.6) <0.001 
    Acrylamide intake, μg/kg body weight per day 0.14 (0.06) 0.20 (0.04) 0.26 (0.05) 0.34 (0.08) 0.53 (0.19) <0.001 
    Coffee consumption, g/d 250 (125) 500 (125) 500 (250) 500 (375) 500 (375) <0.001 
    Dutch spiced cake consumption, g/d 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.7) 0.0 (1.8) 1.8 (7.8) 20.4 (12.6) <0.001 
    Cookie consumption, g/d 3.7 (8.7) 9.6 (20.4) 16.7 (14.8) 16.7 (14.8) 16.7 (14.8) <0.001 
    Potato crisp consumption, g/d 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.3) 0.0 (0.7) <0.001 
    French fries consumption, g/d 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (4.8) 0.0 (12.3) 0.0 (9.7) <0.001 
    Total energy intake, kcal 1467 (449) 1580 (452) 1671 (465) 1730 (550) 1821 (548) <0.001 
    Carbohydrate intake, g/d 153 (55) 162 (50) 176 (53) 183 (61) 200 (69) <0.001 
    Saturated fat intake, g/d 25.5 (12.0) 28.0 (12.6) 28.9 (11.6) 29.8 (13.2) 30.8 (12.3) <0.001 
    Trans-unsaturated fatty acid intake, g/d 1.8 (1.2) 2.1 (1.3) 2.3 (1.4) 2.6 (1.5) 2.7 (1.6) <0.001 
    Fiber intake, g/d 22.9 (9.5) 23.9 (8.5) 24.5 (9.1) 25.7 (9.6) 26.6 (8.6) <0.001 
    Vegetable intake, g/d 184 (107) 182 (102) 179 (83) 190 (104) 184 (96) 0.34 
    Fruit intake, g/d 184 (151) 179 (149) 175 (140) 174 (138) 180 (146) 0.42 
    Alcohol intake, g/d 0.9 (8.4) 1.6 (7.8) 2.0 (8.6) 1.9 (7.0) 1.4 (7.1) 0.09 
Nondietary variables       
    Age, y 62 (7) 61 (7) 60 (7) 61 (8) 61 (7) <0.001 
    BMI, kg/m2 24.6 (4.3) 24.8 (4.4) 24.8 (4.3) 24.6 (4.3) 24.3 (4.2) 0.07 
    Height, cm 165 (8) 165 (9) 165 (8) 165 (8) 165 (10) 0.18 
    Parity, n children 2 (3) 3 (3) 3 (2) 3 (2) 2 (3) 0.003 
    Age at menarche, y 13 (2) 13 (2) 14 (3) 14 (2) 14 (3) 0.12 
    Age at menopause, y 50 (6) 50 (6) 49 (7) 50 (6) 50 (6) 0.38 
    Age at first childbirth, y 27 (5) 26 (5) 27 (5) 26 (5) 26 (5) 0.92 
    Current cigarette smoking, % yes 17.0 18.9 25.9 21.5 19.2 0.02 
    n cigarettes per day among ever-smokers 10 (15) 10 (15) 10 (15) 10 (10) 10 (15) 0.79 
    n smoking years among ever-smokers 31 (20) 27 (20) 30 (20) 28 (21) 29 (19) 0.03 
    Non-occupational physical activity, minutes/d 51.4 (57.9) 51.4 (54.6) 53.6 (54.3) 53.6 (53.6) 51.4 (60.0) 0.91 
    Oral contraceptive use, % ever 22.6 25.1 26.1 26.5 23.6 0.61 
    Oral contraceptive use duration among ever-users, y 6 (9) 6 (9) 6 (8) 7 (10) 8 (8) 0.22 
    Postmenop. hrt§ use, % ever 13.6 14.9 12.6 11.4 11.0 0.76 
    Postmenop. hrt§ use duration among ever-users, y 2 (5) 1 (4) 1 (2) 2 (3) 2 (4) 0.15 
    Education, %      <0.001 
        Primary school 29.9 30.9 34.5 35.2 35.1  
        Lower vocational school 18.3 20.5 25.7 26.2 24.0  
        Intermediate vocational/high school 37.2 39.6 33.6 29.0 32.3  
        Higher vocational school/University 13.6 8.5 5.5 9.0 8.1  
    Family history of breast cancer, % yes 8.5 8.9 7.9 7.5 11.1 0.35 
    Family history of endometrial cancer, % yes 2.3 2.3 3.5 3.4 2.3 0.60 
    Family history of ovarian cancer, % yes 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.52 
*

P value for Kruskal-Wallis test or χ2 test (proportions).

Data represent medians (interquartile range).

Percentages.

§

Postmenop.hrt = postmenopausal hormone treatment.

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