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Table 5.

VDR polymorphisms and breast cancer risk

First author (ref.), year, study placeYears of data collectionEthnicityStudy designNo. cases/controlsComparison*OR (95% CL)Variables adjusted for
Chen (78), 2005, United states 1989/1990-2000 Mainly Caucasian Nested case-control study 1,234/1,676 FokI: ff vs FF  BMI, parity/age at first birth, family history of breast cancer in first-degree relative, BBD, alcohol, age at menarche, and age at menopause 
     Premenopausal 2.18 (1.18, 4.00)  
     Postmenopausal 1.25 (0.94, 1.66)  
     BsmI: BB vs bb   
     Premenopausal 0.92 (0.46, 1.85)  
     Postmenopausal 0.94 (0.69, 1.26)  
Lowe (49), 2005, United Kingdom 1998-2003 Caucasian Hospital-based case-control study 179/179 BsmI: bb vs BB 2.02 (1.03, 3.97) Matching variables, time of year, age at sampling, and menopausal status 
     BsmI: Bb vs BB 0.71 (0.37, 1.36)  
Guy (79), 2004, United Kingdom 1998-2002 Caucasian Hospital-based case-control study 398/427 BsmI: bb vs BB 1.88 (1.19, 2.95) Age, HRT usage, and menopausal status 
     Poly(A): LL vs SS 1.90 (1.20, 3.01)  
     FokI: FF vs ff 1.31 (0.84, 2.06)  
Sillanpaa (83), 2004, Finland 1990-1995 Caucasian Population-based case-control study 483/482 ApaI: aa vs AA 0.80 (0.54, 1.19) Age, age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, no. pregnancies, family history of breast cancer, and history of BBD 
     TaqI: TT vs tt 0.71 (0.42, 1.19)  
Buyru (84), 2003, Turkey Not stated Turkish Case-control study 78/27 BsmI: BB vs bb 0.76 (0.25, 2.29) Not stated 
     TaqI: TT vs tt 1.04 (0.27, 4.49)  
Newcomb (85), 2002, United states 1998 Not stated Population-based case-control study 403/383 TaqI: tt vs TT  Age, family history of breast cancer, BMI, age at first birth, HRT, and menopausal status 
     Premenopausal 1.15 (0.67, 3.41)  
     Postmenopausal 0.85 (0.47, 1.54)  
Hou (86), 2002, Taiwan Not stated Chinese Hospital-based case-control study 34/169 BsmI: Bb vs bb 1.81 (0.72, 4.55) Not stated 
     TaqI: Tt vs TT 1.87 (0.64, 5.42)  
     ApaI: aa vs AA 0.52 (0.19, 1.40)  
Bretherton-Watt (80), 2001, United Kingdom Not stated Caucasian Hospital-based case-control study 181/241 BsmI: bb vs BB 2.32 (1.23, 4.39) Not stated 
     Poly(A): LL vs SS 2.46 (1.29, 4.70)  
     FokI: FF vs ff 1.17 (0.65, 2.08)  
Ingles (81), 2000, United States Not stated Latinas Nested case-control study 143/300 BsmI: BB vs bb 2.2 (1.0, 4.7) Age 
     Poly (A): SS vs LL 3.2 (1.5, 6.9)  
     FokI: ff vs FF 1.1 (0.6, 2.9)  
Curran (82), 1999, Australia Not stated Australian Hospital-based case-control study 135/110 ApaI: a vs A 1.56 (1.09, 2.24) Not stated 
     TaqI: T vs t 1.45 (1.00, 2.00)  
     FokI: F vs f 0.99 (0.69, 1.43)  
Dunning (87), 1999, United Kingdom§ 1992-1996 Caucasian Case-control study 211/268 TaqI: tt vs TT 0.79 (0.45, 1.39) Not stated 
Dunning (87), 1999, United Kingdom§ 1991-1996 Caucasian Case-control study 740/359 TaqI: tt vs TT 1.05 (0.72, 1.53) Not stated 
Lundin (88), 1999, Sweden 1980-1993 Swedish Hospital-based case-control study 111/130 TaqI No association  
Ruggiero (89), 1998, Italy Not stated Italian Hospital-based case-control study 88/167 BsmI: bb vs BB 0.89 (0.44, 1.81) Not stated 
First author (ref.), year, study placeYears of data collectionEthnicityStudy designNo. cases/controlsComparison*OR (95% CL)Variables adjusted for
Chen (78), 2005, United states 1989/1990-2000 Mainly Caucasian Nested case-control study 1,234/1,676 FokI: ff vs FF  BMI, parity/age at first birth, family history of breast cancer in first-degree relative, BBD, alcohol, age at menarche, and age at menopause 
     Premenopausal 2.18 (1.18, 4.00)  
     Postmenopausal 1.25 (0.94, 1.66)  
     BsmI: BB vs bb   
     Premenopausal 0.92 (0.46, 1.85)  
     Postmenopausal 0.94 (0.69, 1.26)  
Lowe (49), 2005, United Kingdom 1998-2003 Caucasian Hospital-based case-control study 179/179 BsmI: bb vs BB 2.02 (1.03, 3.97) Matching variables, time of year, age at sampling, and menopausal status 
     BsmI: Bb vs BB 0.71 (0.37, 1.36)  
Guy (79), 2004, United Kingdom 1998-2002 Caucasian Hospital-based case-control study 398/427 BsmI: bb vs BB 1.88 (1.19, 2.95) Age, HRT usage, and menopausal status 
     Poly(A): LL vs SS 1.90 (1.20, 3.01)  
     FokI: FF vs ff 1.31 (0.84, 2.06)  
Sillanpaa (83), 2004, Finland 1990-1995 Caucasian Population-based case-control study 483/482 ApaI: aa vs AA 0.80 (0.54, 1.19) Age, age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, no. pregnancies, family history of breast cancer, and history of BBD 
     TaqI: TT vs tt 0.71 (0.42, 1.19)  
Buyru (84), 2003, Turkey Not stated Turkish Case-control study 78/27 BsmI: BB vs bb 0.76 (0.25, 2.29) Not stated 
     TaqI: TT vs tt 1.04 (0.27, 4.49)  
Newcomb (85), 2002, United states 1998 Not stated Population-based case-control study 403/383 TaqI: tt vs TT  Age, family history of breast cancer, BMI, age at first birth, HRT, and menopausal status 
     Premenopausal 1.15 (0.67, 3.41)  
     Postmenopausal 0.85 (0.47, 1.54)  
Hou (86), 2002, Taiwan Not stated Chinese Hospital-based case-control study 34/169 BsmI: Bb vs bb 1.81 (0.72, 4.55) Not stated 
     TaqI: Tt vs TT 1.87 (0.64, 5.42)  
     ApaI: aa vs AA 0.52 (0.19, 1.40)  
Bretherton-Watt (80), 2001, United Kingdom Not stated Caucasian Hospital-based case-control study 181/241 BsmI: bb vs BB 2.32 (1.23, 4.39) Not stated 
     Poly(A): LL vs SS 2.46 (1.29, 4.70)  
     FokI: FF vs ff 1.17 (0.65, 2.08)  
Ingles (81), 2000, United States Not stated Latinas Nested case-control study 143/300 BsmI: BB vs bb 2.2 (1.0, 4.7) Age 
     Poly (A): SS vs LL 3.2 (1.5, 6.9)  
     FokI: ff vs FF 1.1 (0.6, 2.9)  
Curran (82), 1999, Australia Not stated Australian Hospital-based case-control study 135/110 ApaI: a vs A 1.56 (1.09, 2.24) Not stated 
     TaqI: T vs t 1.45 (1.00, 2.00)  
     FokI: F vs f 0.99 (0.69, 1.43)  
Dunning (87), 1999, United Kingdom§ 1992-1996 Caucasian Case-control study 211/268 TaqI: tt vs TT 0.79 (0.45, 1.39) Not stated 
Dunning (87), 1999, United Kingdom§ 1991-1996 Caucasian Case-control study 740/359 TaqI: tt vs TT 1.05 (0.72, 1.53) Not stated 
Lundin (88), 1999, Sweden 1980-1993 Swedish Hospital-based case-control study 111/130 TaqI No association  
Ruggiero (89), 1998, Italy Not stated Italian Hospital-based case-control study 88/167 BsmI: bb vs BB 0.89 (0.44, 1.81) Not stated 
*

The associations are presented by menopausal status whenever the studies reported them separately or the studies were restricted to either premenopausal or postmenopausal women. Otherwise, the associations for a combination of premenopausal and postmenopausal women are presented.

Prevalent breast cancer cases were included.

The study by Bretherton-Watt is the pilot study for the study by Guy.

§

The same article presented two separate studies.

No OR and 95% CL were presented. Genotype distributions were similar for cases and controls.

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