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Table 1.

Characteristics of general population studies on mammographic features in relation to breast cancer incidence

First author, y (ref.)Study design. Study population characteristics. Matching variables if applicable (Match). Variables adjusted for in analysis (Adj)No. cases: noncasesAge (y)Mammographic featurePostmammography (y)*
Verbeek, 1984 (32) CC. Cases: diagnosed at 4th screening round in 1981-1982, Nijmegen screening program, the Netherlands; controls: 4 screening rounds. Adj: A, AM, P, AFB, OC, MP, BMI. 20:60 35-64 Wolfe 5-6 
Brisson, 1988 (2) Cohort of white women in follow-up of BCDDP, United States, 1974-1985. Adj: A. 1,999:53,054 35-74 3 grades 1-9 
de Stavola, 1990 (33) Cohort: Guernsey prospective study, United Kingdom. 1977-1988. Adj: A, FUP, BMI. 58:4,896 30-75+ Wolfe 0.5 to ∼7 
Ciatto, 1993 (34) Cohort: Florence district population screening, Italy. 1985-1991. Adj: A. 126:17,745 40-70 Wolfe >0 to 5 
Boyd, 1995 (10); Byng, 1998 (35); Yaffe, 1998 (36) NCC. Canadian National Breast Screening Study. Match: YR, A, FUP, C. Adj: AM, P, AFB, FH, HT, WT. 354:354 40-59 PD, SK, FD 1-5 
Byrne, 1995 (27) NCC of all cases diagnosed during screening or follow-up in 22 of 29 BCDDP centers, United States, 1974-1989. Match: A, C, R, YR, no. screens. Adj: AFB, FH, EDUC, ALC, reproductive years, benign biopsy, WT. 1,880:2,152 35-74 Wolfe, PD 1-16 
Kato, 1995 (37) NCC. New York University Women's Health Study, United States, 1985-1991. Match: A, MP, YR, no. blood samples. Adj: P, BMI, time since menopause. 52:195 (pre) 91:178 (post) 35-65 Wolfe, PD 0.5-6 
Thurfjell, 1996 (38) NCC. Uppsala county screening program, Sweden. 1988-1993. Match: A. Adj: A, breast size. 295:589 40-74 Wolfe 1-5 
Salminen, 1998 (39) Cohort of pilot screening program, Kofta, Finland. 1982-1993. Adj: A. 68:3,994 40-47 Wolfe 0.5-10 
Maskarinec, 2000 (29) NCC. Kaiser Permenente, Hawaii, United States, 1991-1997. Match: YR, A, R. Adj: AM, MP, P, AFB, FH, HRT, previous breast problems. 647:647 Mean 60 PD Mean 0.5 
van Gils, 2000 (40) NCC. Setting same as for Verbeek 1984, cases diagnosed, 1985-1994. Match: YOB, YR. Adj: P. 129:517 36-72 PD 10-11 
Thomas, 2002 (30) CC. 4 previous CC studies combined, Seattle, United States, 1983-1995. Match (frequency): A. Adj: A, C. 547:472 <50 Wolfe, PD 1 to NK 
Ciatto, 2004 (44) NCC of interval cancers. Florence district, Italy. 1996-1999. Match: A, YR. Adj: A. no. breast views, screening round. 90:360 ≥50 PD 0 to <2 
Vacek, 2004 (3) Cohort in Vermont Breast Cancer Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2001. Adj: FH, AFB, HRT, BMI. 1,191:60,653 35-75+ BIRADS 1 to ∼3.1 
Ziv, 2004 (41) Cohort of women who had mammography between 1995-2002 at San Francisco Mammography Registry. Adj: A, BMI, HRT, FH, MP, P, R. 701:44,110 Mean 58 in cases BIRADS 0-7.5 
Maskarinec, 2005 (42) NCC. Multiethnic cohort study, Hawaii, United States, 1993-2000. Match (frequency): A, R. Adj: R, A, BMI, AFB, P, AM, age at menopause, HRT, FH. 607:667 Mean 60 PD 0-7 
Torres-Mejia, 2005 (43) Cohort: Guernsey prospective study, United Kingdom. 1986-2003. Adj: A, EDUC, SEC, job, P, HT, BMI, recent change in BMI. 111:3,100 35-80 Wolfe, PD, FD, SK 0-17 
First author, y (ref.)Study design. Study population characteristics. Matching variables if applicable (Match). Variables adjusted for in analysis (Adj)No. cases: noncasesAge (y)Mammographic featurePostmammography (y)*
Verbeek, 1984 (32) CC. Cases: diagnosed at 4th screening round in 1981-1982, Nijmegen screening program, the Netherlands; controls: 4 screening rounds. Adj: A, AM, P, AFB, OC, MP, BMI. 20:60 35-64 Wolfe 5-6 
Brisson, 1988 (2) Cohort of white women in follow-up of BCDDP, United States, 1974-1985. Adj: A. 1,999:53,054 35-74 3 grades 1-9 
de Stavola, 1990 (33) Cohort: Guernsey prospective study, United Kingdom. 1977-1988. Adj: A, FUP, BMI. 58:4,896 30-75+ Wolfe 0.5 to ∼7 
Ciatto, 1993 (34) Cohort: Florence district population screening, Italy. 1985-1991. Adj: A. 126:17,745 40-70 Wolfe >0 to 5 
Boyd, 1995 (10); Byng, 1998 (35); Yaffe, 1998 (36) NCC. Canadian National Breast Screening Study. Match: YR, A, FUP, C. Adj: AM, P, AFB, FH, HT, WT. 354:354 40-59 PD, SK, FD 1-5 
Byrne, 1995 (27) NCC of all cases diagnosed during screening or follow-up in 22 of 29 BCDDP centers, United States, 1974-1989. Match: A, C, R, YR, no. screens. Adj: AFB, FH, EDUC, ALC, reproductive years, benign biopsy, WT. 1,880:2,152 35-74 Wolfe, PD 1-16 
Kato, 1995 (37) NCC. New York University Women's Health Study, United States, 1985-1991. Match: A, MP, YR, no. blood samples. Adj: P, BMI, time since menopause. 52:195 (pre) 91:178 (post) 35-65 Wolfe, PD 0.5-6 
Thurfjell, 1996 (38) NCC. Uppsala county screening program, Sweden. 1988-1993. Match: A. Adj: A, breast size. 295:589 40-74 Wolfe 1-5 
Salminen, 1998 (39) Cohort of pilot screening program, Kofta, Finland. 1982-1993. Adj: A. 68:3,994 40-47 Wolfe 0.5-10 
Maskarinec, 2000 (29) NCC. Kaiser Permenente, Hawaii, United States, 1991-1997. Match: YR, A, R. Adj: AM, MP, P, AFB, FH, HRT, previous breast problems. 647:647 Mean 60 PD Mean 0.5 
van Gils, 2000 (40) NCC. Setting same as for Verbeek 1984, cases diagnosed, 1985-1994. Match: YOB, YR. Adj: P. 129:517 36-72 PD 10-11 
Thomas, 2002 (30) CC. 4 previous CC studies combined, Seattle, United States, 1983-1995. Match (frequency): A. Adj: A, C. 547:472 <50 Wolfe, PD 1 to NK 
Ciatto, 2004 (44) NCC of interval cancers. Florence district, Italy. 1996-1999. Match: A, YR. Adj: A. no. breast views, screening round. 90:360 ≥50 PD 0 to <2 
Vacek, 2004 (3) Cohort in Vermont Breast Cancer Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2001. Adj: FH, AFB, HRT, BMI. 1,191:60,653 35-75+ BIRADS 1 to ∼3.1 
Ziv, 2004 (41) Cohort of women who had mammography between 1995-2002 at San Francisco Mammography Registry. Adj: A, BMI, HRT, FH, MP, P, R. 701:44,110 Mean 58 in cases BIRADS 0-7.5 
Maskarinec, 2005 (42) NCC. Multiethnic cohort study, Hawaii, United States, 1993-2000. Match (frequency): A, R. Adj: R, A, BMI, AFB, P, AM, age at menopause, HRT, FH. 607:667 Mean 60 PD 0-7 
Torres-Mejia, 2005 (43) Cohort: Guernsey prospective study, United Kingdom. 1986-2003. Adj: A, EDUC, SEC, job, P, HT, BMI, recent change in BMI. 111:3,100 35-80 Wolfe, PD, FD, SK 0-17 

Abbreviations: CC, case-control; NCC, nested case-control study; A, age; AFB, age at first birth; ALC, alcohol consumption; AM, age at menarche; C, center/clinic; EDUC, education; FH, family history of breast cancer; FUP, follow-up time; HRT, current hormone replacement therapy use; HT, height; MP, menopausal status; OC, history of oral contraceptive use; P, parity; R, race/ethnicity; SEC, socioeconomic status; WT, weight; YR, year; PD, percentage density; SK, skewness; FD, fractal dimension; BCDDP, Breast Cancer Detection and Demonstration Project.

*

Time from density assessment to cancer diagnosis in cases.

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