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Table 4.

Chewing of betel nut with or without tobacco and risk of stomach cancer

HabitsCasesControlsUnivariate*, OR (95% CI)Multivariate, adjusted OR (95% CI)
Chewing status     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
    Ex-chewers 83 120 2.0 (1.4-2.9) 1.6 (0.7-2.6) 
    Current chewers 115 150 2.2 (1.6-3.1) 1.5 (0.5-2.2) 
Chewing ingredients     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
    Betel nut + betel leaf 110 189 1.7 (1.2-2.3) 1.2 (0.7-2.1) 
    Tobacco alone 25 20 3.7 (1.9-7.2) 2.6 (1.1-4.2) 
    Betel nut + Betel leaf + tobacco 54 56 2.8 (1.8-4.4) 2.0 (1.3-5.3) 
Chewing frequency/d     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
        ≤3 82 110 1.03 (0.7-1.5) 0.6 (0.1-4.4) 
        >3 116 160 2.2 (1.5-2.9) 1.4 (1.0-4.3) 
        Ptrend < 0.001     
Age began (y)     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
        ≤10 27 39 2.0 (1.2-3.5) 1.3 (0. 3-1.4) 
        11-15 53 102 1.5 (0.8-1.9) 0.9 (0.4-1.9) 
        16-20 68 79 1.5 (1.0-2.3) 0.7 (0.06-3.3) 
        21-30 30 34 2.6 (1.4-4.5) 1.9 (1.1-3.1) 
        ≥31 20 16 3.7 (1.7-7.7) 2.6 (1.6-5.5) 
        Trend test not significant     
Years of chewing     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
        ≤15 66 96 2.0 (1.3-3.0) 1.2 (0.06-4.4) 
        16-30 48 64 2.2 (1.4-3.4) 1.3 (0.65-5.4) 
        >30 72 103 2.0 (1.4-3.0) 1.1 (0.03-6.4) 
        Trend test not significant     
Years since stopped chewing     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
        <10 44 52 2.5 (1.5-4.0) 1.1 (0.01-6.4) 
        10-20 25 40 1.8 (1.04-3.2) 0.74 (0.02-4.2) 
        20< 14 24 1.7 (0.8-3.6) 0.61 (0.03-5.6) 
        Trend test not significant     
Cumulative dose to chewing of betel nut + betel leaf     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
    <50,000 42 76 1.6 (1.0-2.5) 0.63 (0.05-3.2) 
    50,000-100,000 60 88 2.0 (1.3-3.0) 1.3 (0.08-5.3) 
    >100,000 84 68 3.6 (2.4-5.4) 2.3 (1.2-4.5) 
    Ptrend < 0.01     
Cumulative dose to amount of tobacco chewing (mg)     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
        <20,000 13 18 2.1 (0.9-4.7) 1.5 (0.04-4.8) 
        >20,000 24 22 3.2 (1.6-6.2) 2.6 (1.2-5.6) 
HabitsCasesControlsUnivariate*, OR (95% CI)Multivariate, adjusted OR (95% CI)
Chewing status     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
    Ex-chewers 83 120 2.0 (1.4-2.9) 1.6 (0.7-2.6) 
    Current chewers 115 150 2.2 (1.6-3.1) 1.5 (0.5-2.2) 
Chewing ingredients     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
    Betel nut + betel leaf 110 189 1.7 (1.2-2.3) 1.2 (0.7-2.1) 
    Tobacco alone 25 20 3.7 (1.9-7.2) 2.6 (1.1-4.2) 
    Betel nut + Betel leaf + tobacco 54 56 2.8 (1.8-4.4) 2.0 (1.3-5.3) 
Chewing frequency/d     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
        ≤3 82 110 1.03 (0.7-1.5) 0.6 (0.1-4.4) 
        >3 116 160 2.2 (1.5-2.9) 1.4 (1.0-4.3) 
        Ptrend < 0.001     
Age began (y)     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
        ≤10 27 39 2.0 (1.2-3.5) 1.3 (0. 3-1.4) 
        11-15 53 102 1.5 (0.8-1.9) 0.9 (0.4-1.9) 
        16-20 68 79 1.5 (1.0-2.3) 0.7 (0.06-3.3) 
        21-30 30 34 2.6 (1.4-4.5) 1.9 (1.1-3.1) 
        ≥31 20 16 3.7 (1.7-7.7) 2.6 (1.6-5.5) 
        Trend test not significant     
Years of chewing     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
        ≤15 66 96 2.0 (1.3-3.0) 1.2 (0.06-4.4) 
        16-30 48 64 2.2 (1.4-3.4) 1.3 (0.65-5.4) 
        >30 72 103 2.0 (1.4-3.0) 1.1 (0.03-6.4) 
        Trend test not significant     
Years since stopped chewing     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
        <10 44 52 2.5 (1.5-4.0) 1.1 (0.01-6.4) 
        10-20 25 40 1.8 (1.04-3.2) 0.74 (0.02-4.2) 
        20< 14 24 1.7 (0.8-3.6) 0.61 (0.03-5.6) 
        Trend test not significant     
Cumulative dose to chewing of betel nut + betel leaf     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
    <50,000 42 76 1.6 (1.0-2.5) 0.63 (0.05-3.2) 
    50,000-100,000 60 88 2.0 (1.3-3.0) 1.3 (0.08-5.3) 
    >100,000 84 68 3.6 (2.4-5.4) 2.3 (1.2-4.5) 
    Ptrend < 0.01     
Cumulative dose to amount of tobacco chewing (mg)     
    Non-chewers 131 388 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference) 
        <20,000 13 18 2.1 (0.9-4.7) 1.5 (0.04-4.8) 
        >20,000 24 22 3.2 (1.6-6.2) 2.6 (1.2-5.6) 
*

Matched (cases and controls were matched for age and sex) univariate OR estimated by conditional logistic regression analysis.

Adjusted ORs (adjusted for alcohol drinking, smoking, using of tuibur, level of education, occupation, and income group) obtained by matched conditional multiple logistic regression analysis using maximum likelihood approach.

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