Skip to Main Content
Table 4.

Baseline characteristics among 508 women who developed breast cancer (cases) and an equal number of women who remained free of breast cancer (controls)

Cases (n = 508)Controls (n = 508)P
Body mass index (kg/m225.5 ± 4.4 25.9 ± 4.8 0.27 
History of breast cancer in first-degree relative (%) 7.2 7.7 0.76 
Exercise (%)   0.78 
    Rarely/never 36.6 39.8  
    <Once/wk 20.1 18.7  
    One to three times/wk 32.9 31.7  
    ≥Four times/wk 10.4 9.8  
Alcohol consumption (%)   0.17 
    Rarely/never 41.7 45.3  
    One to three drinks/mo 12.2 15.2  
    One to six drinks/wk 34.5 30.1  
    ≥One drink/d 11.6 9.5  
Menarche ≥14 years (%) 16.9 18.9 0.40 
Ever used oral contraceptives (%) 62.1 65.7 0.50 
    Age at first pregnancy (%)   0.028 
    <20 years 5.9 10.1  
    20-34 years 86.8 85.3  
    ≥35 years 5.9 2.6  
Nulliparous (%) 2.3 2.6 0.44 
Postmenopausal (%) 63.2 61.0 0.23 
Postmenopausal hormone use (%)   0.30 
    Never 43.8 40.6  
    Former 9.5 12.2  
    Current 46.8 47.1  
Fruit and vegetable intake (servings/d) 6.2 ± 3.2 6.0 ± 3.1 0.16 
Energy-adjusted dietary factors    
    Lycopene intake (μg/d) 9,359 ± 6,780 9,038 ± 6,409 0.44 
    Total fiber intake (g/d) 19.1 ± 5.6 19.2 ± 6.2 0.84 
    Folate intake (μg/d) 434 ± 228 441 ± 239 0.62 
Saturated fat intake (g/d) 19.5 ± 5.0 19.7 ± 4.7 0.52 
Plasma lycopene (μg/dL) 10.8 ± 5.7 10.3 ± 4.7 0.20 
Plasma total cholesterol (mg/dL) 220 ± 37 221 ± 39 0.61 
Plasma β-cryptoxanthin (μg/dL) 11.4 ± 9.7 11.1 ± 8.7 0.52 
Plasma lutein/zeaxanthin (μg/dL) 19.4 ± 10.5 18.5 ± 8.8 0.16 
Plasma α-carotene (μg/dL) 8.9 ± 8.5 8.2 ± 7.5 0.19 
Plasma β-carotene (μg/dL) 27.1 ± 23.3 25.4 ± 22.0 0.24 
Cases (n = 508)Controls (n = 508)P
Body mass index (kg/m225.5 ± 4.4 25.9 ± 4.8 0.27 
History of breast cancer in first-degree relative (%) 7.2 7.7 0.76 
Exercise (%)   0.78 
    Rarely/never 36.6 39.8  
    <Once/wk 20.1 18.7  
    One to three times/wk 32.9 31.7  
    ≥Four times/wk 10.4 9.8  
Alcohol consumption (%)   0.17 
    Rarely/never 41.7 45.3  
    One to three drinks/mo 12.2 15.2  
    One to six drinks/wk 34.5 30.1  
    ≥One drink/d 11.6 9.5  
Menarche ≥14 years (%) 16.9 18.9 0.40 
Ever used oral contraceptives (%) 62.1 65.7 0.50 
    Age at first pregnancy (%)   0.028 
    <20 years 5.9 10.1  
    20-34 years 86.8 85.3  
    ≥35 years 5.9 2.6  
Nulliparous (%) 2.3 2.6 0.44 
Postmenopausal (%) 63.2 61.0 0.23 
Postmenopausal hormone use (%)   0.30 
    Never 43.8 40.6  
    Former 9.5 12.2  
    Current 46.8 47.1  
Fruit and vegetable intake (servings/d) 6.2 ± 3.2 6.0 ± 3.1 0.16 
Energy-adjusted dietary factors    
    Lycopene intake (μg/d) 9,359 ± 6,780 9,038 ± 6,409 0.44 
    Total fiber intake (g/d) 19.1 ± 5.6 19.2 ± 6.2 0.84 
    Folate intake (μg/d) 434 ± 228 441 ± 239 0.62 
Saturated fat intake (g/d) 19.5 ± 5.0 19.7 ± 4.7 0.52 
Plasma lycopene (μg/dL) 10.8 ± 5.7 10.3 ± 4.7 0.20 
Plasma total cholesterol (mg/dL) 220 ± 37 221 ± 39 0.61 
Plasma β-cryptoxanthin (μg/dL) 11.4 ± 9.7 11.1 ± 8.7 0.52 
Plasma lutein/zeaxanthin (μg/dL) 19.4 ± 10.5 18.5 ± 8.8 0.16 
Plasma α-carotene (μg/dL) 8.9 ± 8.5 8.2 ± 7.5 0.19 
Plasma β-carotene (μg/dL) 27.1 ± 23.3 25.4 ± 22.0 0.24 

NOTE: Cases and controls were matched on age and smoking status.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal